Jung handbook 02

Jung handbook 02

The Handbook of Jung Psychology
榮格心理學的手冊

Chapter 9 Individuation 197
Individuation
Murray Stein

第九章 個體化
墨菲、史坦因

This question of how far a person has come on the road toward individuation
is different from the usual types of diagnostic question raised in
psychological assessment, although they are not unrelated, as I will try to
show in the following pages.

一個人在朝向個體化的途中,已經進展多遠的問題,不同於通常種類的診斷性的問題,在心理評估時所被提出的,雖然這些問題彼此不是不相關。我在以下幾頁會設法顯現:

In considering individuation, one has in mind something more encompassing than only cognitive development, behavioural adjustment, moral attainment, or the presence or absence of psychopathological features. These are important markers in the complexity that constitutes individuation, but they are not exhaustive. There
are other features that are also determinative.

當我們考慮個體化,我們構想某件涵蓋更廣的東西,不僅是認知的發展,行為的調適,道德的實現,或是心理病理特徵的存在或欠缺。這些都是重要的標示,在形成個體化的複雜中,但是他們並沒有涵蓋一切。還有其他的特徵,也是決定性的。

The assessment of individuation describes a person’s conscious and unconscious assumptions and attitudes: about the basis and sources of identity and sense of self worth, about the quality and meaning of relationships to other people and
to the world at large, about the energy (or the absence of it) poured into personal striving and ambition, about the objects of desire and passions
that lead a person into the highways and byways of life, about the focus of
life’s meaning. What the Jungian therapist is looking for in making an
assessment of individuation is how a person’s chronological age matches
up with the level of development in these conscious and unconscious
assumptions and attitudes.

個體化的評估描述一個人的意識與無意識的假定與態度,關於認同及自我價值的基礎與來源,關於跟別人的關係跟跟一般世界的關係,具有的品質跟意義,關於傾注於個人的奮鬥及企圖心的精力(或欠缺精力),關於欲望跟激情的客體,引導一個人進入人生的公路及旁路,關於生命意義的焦點。當榮格學派的精神治療師正在對於個體化做評估時,他所正在尋求的是,一個人的年齡成長階段,如何跟發展的層次相配,在這些意識與無意識到假定跟態度。

To take the full inventory of them is a large and complex study, which includes transferential and countertransferential sources of information. Of course, cultural factors must also be considered in making a reasonably fair and accurate assessment of a person’s individuation.

要將這些通盤整理的研究,可說是既盤大,又複雜。它包括移情與反移情的資訊來源。當然,文化的因素必須也要被考慮,當我們對於一個人的個體化,從事相當公平及合理地評估時。

Jung himself, who could be considered (Papadopoulos 1992, vol. 2: 97
98) to be the first important full lifespan theorist, wrote about two major
stages of life, the first half of life and the second. Each stage has its typical
developmental tasks, sequences and crises. A later Jungian theorist, Erich
Neumann, conceptualised the lifelong development of personality as falling
into three major eras or phases. Neumann’s paradigm, which does not
contradict Jung’s, adds a useful degree of further differentiation to the first
half of life, and Neumann’s model is widely used by Jungian psychotherapists
today.

榮格自己,可以被認為是第一位重要的理論家,終其一生,致力於寫作,大約可分成兩個重要的生命的階段,前半生及後半生。每一個階段擁有它的典型的發展的工作,事件及危機。艾瑞克、紐曼是榮格學派的晚期理論家,他將人格的終生發展構想成為三個主要的時期或階段。紐曼的典範,並沒有抵觸榮格的典範。他增加一個有用的區別的程度,到前半生。今天,紐曼的模式,廣泛地被榮格學派的心理治療師所採用。

Within the linguistic universe of analytical psychology, the lifelong
development of personality is called individuation. Briefly stated, individuation
refers to the process of becoming the personality that one innately
is potentia//y from the beginning of life. The sequence of developmental
stages in almost every individual’s life has common features, hazards and
breakdowns. The Jungian psychotherapist has a keen awareness of how this
developmental sequence unfolds ideally and how it so often fails to reach
its proper destination due to genetic, circumstantial, social and cultural
obstacles. There are also some important differences between the genders to
be considered.

在分析心理學的語言的宇宙裏,人格的終身發展被稱個體化。簡言之,個體化提到人格形成的過程,這是人從生命的開始,與生俱來的潛在本質。在幾乎每一個人的一生,發展階段的系列,都會有共同點特徵,危險及崩潰。榮格學派的心理治療師,強烈地知覺到,這個發展的系列如何理想地展開,以及它為何無法到達它的適當地目標,由於基因、環境、社會及文化的阻礙。也有一些重要的差異,存在於兩性之間,需要被考慮。

In summary, then, the patient arriving for Jungian psychotherapy is
intuitively and clinically assessed in the mind of the psychotherapist,
generally against the DSM-IV standards of normal and abnormal mental
and psychological states and specifically against the perspectives of the
individuation process as this has been outlined in the Jungian literature (see
the bibliography for a selection of key works on this topic). Most likely this
assessment never becomes apparent to the patient, nor is it discussed
explicitly. It is, however, used by the therapist to guide interpretations, to
make interventions, and to establish and maintain the structure of therapy.
Much of the therapist’s style in a specific case depends on this assessment of
where the patient stands on the road of individuation.

總結來說,當病人到來,尋求榮格學派的心理治療,他會接受心理治療師心目中的直覺與臨床的診斷,通常是依據「DSM-IV」的精神正常與異常精神與心理狀態的標準。明確地說,就是依據個體化過程的觀點,如同在榮格的文獻所描繪的觀點,(請參照有關這個議題重要著作選集的索引)。很有可能的,這個評估從來沒有明顯地讓病人知曉,也沒有明確地被討論。可是,治療師時常使用它來引導解釋,來做介入,並且建立及維持治療的結構。在明確的個案裏,大部份治療師的風格,都依靠這個評估:在個體化的途中,病人的位置在哪里?

In the following pages I will survey the three main stages of the individuation
process, its two major crises periods, and its ultimate goal. The
efforts made in therapy are fundamentally geared toward promoting and
facilitating, or toward unblocking and restarting, the individuation process
in patients. The three stages of individuation are, first, the containment/
nurturance (i.e., the maternal, or in Neumann’s terminology the matriarchal)
stage, second, the adapting/adjusting (i.e., the paternal, or, again in
Neumann’s terminology, the patriarchal) stage, and third, the centring/
integrating (in Neumann’s terminology, the individual) stage. (These can be
coordinated with Erik Erikson’s seven stages of psychological development,
first published in 1950.) The two major crises of individuation fall in the
transitions between these stages, the first in adolescence and early adulthood
and the second at midlife.

在以下的幾頁,我將會測量個體化過程的這三個階段,它的兩個主要危機的時期,及它最後的目標。治療所做的努力基本上是朝向提升及使方便,或是朝向除去障礙跟重新開始病人身上的個體化過程。個體化的三個階段的第一階段是包容與培養階段,(例如,母親的階段,或是按鈕曼的術語,女家長的階段)。第二階段是,適應與調整階段,(例如,父親的階段,或是按鈕曼的術語,父權的階段)。第三階段,中心化及合併階段(按鈕曼的術語,就是個體的階段)。(這三個階段能夠跟艾瑞克、艾瑞遜,在1950年首次出版的心理發展的七個階段,互相調和。)個體化的兩個重要的危機分屬於這些階段之間的過渡,第一個階段在青少年及剛成年;第二個階段的危機在中年。

These three stages should be thought of not as discrete and entirely
separate rooms that are inhabited for a period of time and then left behind
when one enters the next chamber, or as a specific number of miles on life’s
journey never to be trodden again once passed through. Rather, they indicate
emphases and predominant attitudes during the major eras of a
person’s life. They are stages of growth and development that shade
gradually from one into the next, and features of each continue, but in a
less predominant way, as a person makes the passage through a whole
lifetime. The first stage refers to childhood, the second to early and middle
adulthood, and the third to middle and late adulthood and old age. This
view of the lifeline is a tool for psychotherapy, useful if applied with a deft
touch but damaging if handled too concretely and with blunt force. It is a
perspective that gives the Jungian psychotherapist a way of understanding
the psychological qualities and some of the troubling deficits of the patients
who come for treatment.

這三個階段不應該被認為是分離及完全隔開的房間。在這些房間,某一段時期被居住,然後被離開,當他進入另外一個房間時。或是當成在人生的旅途,某個明確的距離,一但越過之後,就永遠不會再回頭跋涉。相反的,它們指示著被強調及佔優勢的態度,在一個人生命中的重要時期。他們是成長及發展的階段,慢慢地從一個階段,轉變成為下一個階段,每一個階段的特徵會繼續下去,但是方式沒有那麼佔優勢,當一個人的整個一生,就這樣通過。第一個階段提到童年,第二個階段提到剛成年及中年,第三個階段提到莊年及老年。這種生命階段的觀點,是心理治療的一個工具。假如靈活運用的話,會很有用。但是假如太拘泥不化,或是蠻橫套用,則是會造成傷害。這個觀點給予榮格學派的心理治療師一種方法,來瞭解心理特質,及前來求診的病人的一些令人困擾的缺點。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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