Jung handbook 01

Jung handbook 01

The Handbook of Jung Psychology
榮格心理學的手冊

Chapter 9 Individuation 197
Individuation
Murray Stein

第九章 個體化
墨菲、史坦因

Introduction 導論

The theme of individuation sounds through Jung’s writings, like a leitmotiv,
from the time of his break with Freud and psychoanalysis onward without
pause to his death. All things considered, it is perhaps his major psychological
idea, a sort of backbone for the rest of the corpus.

在榮格的著作裏,個體化的主題聽起來,像是一個跟佛洛伊德及精神分析學決裂的時候開始的主題,然後一直延續到他死亡。從各方面考量,個體化是他的主要的心理學的觀念,作為其餘著作的一種基礎。

Introducing the term in his esoteric, anonymously published little book
Septem Sermones ad Mortuos (Seven Sermons to the Dead) in 1915, Jung
deepened and expanded the idea in the much revised work, also begun in
the same period, Two Essays on Analytical Psychology (CW 7) and in the
summary work of the early period, Psychological Types (CW 6). Later he
added further substance to the notion in his studies of archetypes and
especially in his researches on alchemy. He detailed individuation clinically
in his seminars (Analytical Psychology, Dream Analysis, Visions and
Nietzsche’s ‘Zarathustra’) as well as in several case studies. It also played an
important role in his many writings on religion and culture.

1915年,在他奧秘的匿名出版的小書「對於死者的七場講道」,榮格首次介紹這個術語。他深化並且擴充至個觀念,在同一個時期出版,這部校正多次的著作裏,「分析心理學的兩篇論文」,以及在早期的總結的著作「心理的原型」。後來,他更進一步補充材料到這個觀念,在他對於心理原型的研究,特別是在他對於鍊金術的研究。在他的講座「分析心理學,夢的分析,幻象與尼采的查拉哲斯特拉」,他以臨床方式,以及用好幾個個案,詳舉個體化。在他的許多論述宗教與文化的著作,個體化也扮演重要的地位。

Individuation was taken up as a central theme by nearly all of Jung’s
important students. Major contributions were made to the theory by
Fordham (1969), who studied individuation in children, and by Neumann
(1955), who saw individuation as unfolding in three major stages, each
containing several sub-phases. Hillman, a Jungian deconstructionist, has
vigorously attacked the notion of psychological development in general and
individuation in particular, holding a view that such ideas are nothing but
fantasies used to construct modern psychological myths. More recently,
Jacoby has added refinement and differentiation to the theory of individuation
by introducing data from modern infant research. Samuels has introduced
the feature of political consciousness and involvement. The debate
goes on.

幾乎所有榮格的重要的學生,都將個體化當作是一種中央的主題。在1969年,佛德罕在小孩身上研究個體化,當著是以三個主要的階段展開,每一個階段都包含好幾個次級的階段。希爾曼是榮格學派的解構主義者,曾經不遺餘力地攻擊一般心理發展的觀念,特別是個體化。他的觀點是:這樣的觀念僅僅是被用來建構現代心理學神話的幻見。最近,捷克比憑藉介紹現代的嬰兒研究,使個體化的理論補充得更加精鍊及細微區分。撒姆耳則是介紹政治的意識與參與的特色。爭論繼續下去。

1 n the following pages, I present a distillation and synthesis of the Jungiann
tradition on the central theme of individuation, situating this particular discussion
in the clinical setting of psychotherapy and showing how the working
Jungian psychotherapist may use this developmental idea in practice.

在以下的幾頁,我呈現對於榮格學派的傳統的過濾跟綜合,有關個體化的中央的主題,並且將這個特別論述,定位在心理治療的臨床的背景,然後顯示,正在執業的榮格學派的心理治療師,如何使用這個發展中的觀念在心理諮商中。

When Jungian psychotherapists face patients for the first time, they try to
size them up. One listens to that first outpouring of narrative, of confession
or complaint, with an ear cocked to tone. Does this sound like true suffering,
or is this person blocked in feeling or cranky in thought? Is this
someone who blames others too much, or does she shoulder too much
responsibility for what goes wrong? Is this person too passive? Too active?
Within the texture of even the most innocent first narrative, therapists
will often spot fragility, entitlement, emotional vulnerability and a host
of other telling feelings and attitudes. In the therapist’s own emotional
responses to this narrative, too, one may detect the pull of a raging demand
for help, or the opposite — the pushing away that creates too great a
distance. In the first sessions, and indeed throughout a long therapeutic
treatment, therapists spin an evolving mental assessment of how their
patients are carrying on with life at the particular stage they find themselves
in now, as they attempt to settle their old accounts, open new ones, and
elaborate their stories.

當榮格派的精神分析師第一次面對病人時,他們設法評估他們。他豎耳傾聽,病人首次描述、告白、或抱怨。這聽起來像是真實的痛苦嗎?或是這位病人感情麻痹,或是胡思亂想?這個人老是責怪別人嗎?或是,因為事情出錯時,她承擔太多的責任?這位人過於被動?過於積極?即使是首次單純的陳述的內容,治療師時常覺察出脆弱、權利、情感上的易受傷害,以及無數其他流露的感情跟態度。從治療師自己對於這種陳述的情感的反應,我們也可以偵測出迫切求助的呼喚。或是相反的,那是一種拉開距離的推卻?在前面的幾節諮商,一直到漫長的治療的療程,治療師對於病人如何過他們的生涯,在他們發現自己處於的這個特別的階段,不斷地在進展上從事心智上的評估,當病人企圖對於過去做一總結,重新開展生活,並且構想他們的展望。

Jungian psychotherapists hold a notion of psychological development, of
`stages of life’, and we ask ourselves questions about the levels of psychological
development demonstrated in the narratives offered by the people
who come to us. Does a person’s discourse show a good match, we wonder
for instance, between chronological age and psychological attitudes? The
full clinical impression of a person’s level or degree of psychological
development takes many sessions and much observation to formulate in
depth and detail. It is an estimate of their achieved individuation. Individuation
is a term used to indicate a person’s potential for full psychological
development. In the following, I will describe some of the features of Jung’s
complex vision and estimate of the human potential. In its simplest formula,
individuation is the capacity for wholeness and evolved consciousness.

榮格派的精神分析師心目中擁有一個心理發展及「生命階段」的觀念。我們詢問我們自己這些問題,關於前來跟我們求助的人們,他們提供的陳述,展現出來的心理發展的層次。例如,我們想要知道,一個人的論述顯現出,時間先後的階段跟心理的態度適當相配嗎?一個人的心理發展的層次或階段,需要好幾節的詢商及觀察,來深度及詳細地說明,才能充份地給予診所一個印象。這就是要評估他們完成的個體化。個體化是被用來指示一個人充份心理發展的潛力的術語。在以下,我將會描述一下榮格複雜洞見的特徵,以及人類潛力的評估。就它的最簡單的公式而言,個體化就是統整及意識充份發展的能力

The aim of analysis is to increase and to promote individuation in patients.
The Jungian therapist’s unspoken reflections on achieved individuation
take place within the general context of formulating a diagnosis and
assessment of a patient’s psychological development.

精神分析的目的,是要增加及提升病人身上的個體化。對於完成的個體化,榮格的治療師沒有說出沉思,發生在對於一個病人的心理發展的診斷跟評估,所做的通盤說明的內涵。

What is the patient’s level of everyday functioning? Does physical illness play a role? Is there serious psychopathology? Sometimes these considerations feature prominently in the treatment; in other cases they play no significant role at all.
Determining their importance for guiding treatment is the business of the
early sessions of psychotherapy, even while these concerns remain a consideration
throughout. And just as diagnosis from the clinical perspective of the standard Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
(DSM-IV: this was devised by the American Psychiatric Association and
it is now in its fourth edition, revised in 2000) is an ongoing and evolving
consideration which the Jungian psychotherapist, like any other,
makes in such terms as major depression, anxiety, the various character

什麼是病人的日常功用的層次呢?生理上的疾病扮演一個角色嗎?是否有可行的心理病情學?有時候,這些考慮作為在其他並無關緊要的病例,治療的顯著特徵。決定它們的重要性,用來引導治療,心理治療的早期諮商節數的事情。即使當這些關心始終是從頭到尾的一個考慮。從標準的診所的觀點,診斷是一個正在進行及發展中的考慮。榮格派的精神分析師,像任何其他的精神分析師一樣,以這樣的術語,所造成的沮喪、焦慮、及各種各樣的特性,具有同樣的重要性。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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