Archive for December, 2010

Anxiety 92 Jacques Lacan

December 26, 2010

Anxiety 92

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK X
雅克、拉康研討會第十冊

ANXIETY 論焦慮

1962 – 1963

Seminar 13: Wednesday 6 March 1963

For this, it would be necessary for him to be more personally
concerned, for him to be a sadist or a masochist, for example.
Once a true masochist, a true sadist is involved, which does not mean someone who can have phantasies that we pinpoint as sadistic or masochistic, provided they reproduce the fundamental position (8) of the sadist or the masochist, the true sadist, in so far as we can locate, coordinate, construct his essential condition, the true masochist, in so far as we find ourselves, by successive mapping out, elimination, required to push further the plan of his position than what is given to us by others as Erlebnis, an Erlebnis itself more homogeneous, the Erlebnis of the neurotic, but an Erlebnis which is only a reference, a dependence, the image of something beyond, which constitutes the specificity of the perverse position and with regard to which the neurotic takes
in a way his reference and his support for ends to which we will return.

因為這樣,他有必要個人表示更加關心,例如,他有必要成為一位虐待狂或是一位受虐狂。一但一位真正的受虐狂,一位真正的虐待狂牽扯到裏面,這並不意味著某一個人,能夠擁有我們強調為虐待狂或是受虐狂的幻見,只要他們複製虐待狂或是受虐狂的基本立場。真實的虐待狂,就我們能夠定位,協調,建設他的基本的狀況,真正的受虐狂,就我們發現我們自己,以連續性的描繪情況及化簡,被要求將他的立場的計畫推展下去。比別人所給予別人的,如額立尼斯,一個生活體驗的本身,更加具有同質性,神經質的生活體驗。但是一個生活體驗,只是一個指稱,一個依靠,某件超越的意象。它組成偏執狂的立場的明確性。關於這個某件超越的東西,神經質患者以某種方式,接納他的指稱及他的支援,為了我們將會回轉的目的。

Let us try therefore to say what we can presume about what this sadistic or masochistic position is, what the images of Lucy and Agatha may really interest: the key to it is anxiety.

因此讓我們設法說,我們能夠假定,關於這位虐待狂或是受虐狂的立場是什麼,露絲跟阿甘撒可能真的會引起什麼興趣:它的解答就是焦慮。

But it is necessary to seek out, know why. The masochist – I told you the other day, the last time – what is his position? What masks his phantasy from him? To be the object of a jouissance of the Other which is his own will to jouissance; for after all, the masochist does not necessarily, as a humourous apologue already quoted here reminds you, meet his partner. What does this position of object mask, if it is not to rejoin himself, to posit himself in the function of human rag, of this poor scrap separated from the body which is presented to us here.

但是我們必須找出,知道為什麼。我前天,上一次告訴過你們,有關受虐狂,他的立場上什麼?是什麼遮蔽他的幻見,不讓他知道?為了成為一個大它者的歡爽的客體,這個大它者是他自己到達生命歡爽的意志。畢竟,這個受虐狂未必符合他的同伴,如同一位已經被引述過多幽默的寓言所提醒你們的。客體的這個立場遮蔽了什麼,難道不就是要重新加入他自己,提出他自己,作為人類碎片的功用。這個從身體分離出來的可憐的碎片,在此被呈現給予我們。

And this is why I tell you that the aim of the jouissance of the Other is a phantastical aim.

這就是為什麼我告訴你們,大它者的歡爽的目的,就是幻見到目的。

What is sought, is in the Other, the response to this essential
collapse of the subject into his final misery which is anxiety.
Where is this Other that is involved? Here indeed is the reason
why there was produced in this circle the third term always
present in perverse jouissance: the profound ambiguity in which there is situated an apparently dual relationship is rediscovered here.

在大它者身上所被尋求的,就是生命主體的這個基本的崩塌的反應,崩塌進入他的最後的悲慘,那就是焦慮。這個被牽涉到的大它者在哪里?在此確實就是為什麼出現在偏執狂的歡爽的這第三個術語,在這個圈子被產生的原因:這個深刻的曖昧在此重新被發現,因為有一個顯而易見的雙重關係被定位在那裏。

Because moreover I have to make you sense where I intend
to indicate this anxiety to you. We could say – and the thing is sufficiently highlighted by all sorts of features of history – that this anxiety which is the blind aim of the masochist – for his phantasy masks it from him – is nonetheless really what we could call the anxiety of God.

而且,我必須使你們感覺到,我要在那裏跟你們指示這個焦慮。我們能夠說,這件事從歷史的各種特徵中,被充份地被強調。這個焦慮是受虐狂的盲目的目的。因為他的幻見遮蔽它,無法被他看見。它仍然真正是我們所謂的上帝的焦慮。

Do I need to appeal to the most fundamental Christian myth to give substance to everything that I am advancing here, namely that if the whole Christian adventure is not engaged in this central, inaugural, attempt, incarnated by a man whose every word is to be reheard again as those of someone who pushed things to their final term of an anxiety which only finds its veritable cycle at the level of him for whom the sacrifice is set up, namely at the level of the father.

我必須訴諸於最基本的基督教的神話,來具體證明我在此所提出的一切嗎?換句話說,假如整個基督教的歷險,並不是從事於這個中央的開始的企圖,這個人的具體表現,他的每一個字都要重新被人聽見,就像是某一個人的話語。這個人將事情推展的它們的最後的焦慮的術語。這種焦慮找到它的可驗證的圈子,在他的層次。犧性被建立就是為了他,換句話說,在天父的層次。

God has no soul. That is quite obvious. No theologian has ever
dreamt of attributing one to him. Nevertheless the total,
radical change of perspective of the relationship to God began
with a drama, a passion in which someone made himself the soul of God.

上帝沒有靈魂。這是相當顯而易見的,沒有一個神學家夢想到要賦予靈魂給上帝。可是,跟上帝的關係的觀點的積極的改變,跟隨一個戲劇性的發展而開始。某個人以一個激情的方式,使他自己成為上帝的靈魂。

Since it is because the place of the soul is also situated
at this level o of the residue of the fallen object that is
involved, that is essentially involved, that there is no living conception of the soul, with the whole dramatic cortege in which this notion appears and functions in our cultural domain, unless it is accompanied precisely in the most essential fashion by this image of the fall.

這是因為靈魂的位置,也是位於牽涉到的墮落的客體的殘餘物的這個層次。那是基本上所牽涉到,靈魂沒有活生生的概念,由於整個戲劇性的行列。在這個行列裏,這個觀念出現,然後在我們文化的領域裏發揮功用,即使它基本的模式上,並沒有確實伴隨著這個墮落的這個意象。

Everything that Kierkegaard articulates is only a reference to these great structural reference points. Now then observe that I began with the masochist. It was the more difficult; but as a matter of fact it was the one which avoided confusions.

齊克果表達的這一切,只是提到這些偉大的結構的指稱點。現在請你們觀察一下,我從這個受虐狂患者開始。這是比較困難的受虐狂,但是事實上,它是避免混淆的受虐狂。

Because one can understand better what a sadist is; and the snare involved here in making of it only the reversal, the other side, the inverted position of the masochist, unless one proceeds – which is what is usually done – in the opposite sense.

因為我們比較能夠瞭解,虐待狂是怎麼一回事,這裏牽涉到的陷阱,當我們只是用相反的東西解釋它,這相反的一面,受虐狂的倒轉的位置。除非我們繼續前進,這是我們通常所做的,從相反的意義來解釋。

In the sadist, anxiety is less hidden. It is even so little so that it comes to the fore in the phantasy, which, if one analyses it makes of the anxiety of the victim an altogether required condition.

在虐待狂的身上,焦慮比較沒有受到隱藏。它甚至幾乎沒有隱藏,以致於它在幻見當中,昭然若揭。假如我們分析這個幻見,它會以一個完全被要求的條件,解釋受害者的焦慮。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

Anxiety 91 Jacques Lacan

December 26, 2010

Anxiety 91

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK X
雅克、拉康研討會第十冊

ANXIETY 論焦慮

1962 – 1963

Seminar 13: Wednesday 6 March 1963

And if you wish, to connote the three stages of this operation,
we will say that here there is an X which we can only name
retroactively, and which is properly speaking the approach of the Other, the essential line of sight where the subject has to pose himself and whose name I will give you afterwards.

為了指明這個運作的三個階段,我們將會說,在此有一個未知數,我們只能反過來命名。適當地說,這個大它者的接近,視覺的基本線。在那裏,生命的主體必須提出自己,它的名字,我以後將會給予你。

We have here the level of anxiety in so far as it is constitutive of the apparition of the function o and it is at the third term that there appears the S as subject of desire.

我們在此擁有焦慮的層次,它是大它者的功用的魅影所形成。就是這第三個術語,出現這個被禁制的生命的主體,作為欲望的生命主體。

To illustrate now, to bring alive this no doubt extreme
abstraction that I have just articulated, I am going to lead you to the obviousness of the image and this of course all the more legitimately in that it is an image that is involved, that this irreducible of o is of the order of the image.

He who possessed the object of desire and of the law, he who had enjoyed his mother, Oedipus to give him his name, takes this further step, he sees what he has done. You know what happens then.

現在為了舉例說明,為了生動表現我剛剛表達的這個觀念。無可置疑的,它是非常極端。我將引導你們到這個意象,顯而易見的地方。當然,這將更具有合理性,因為這是一個被牽涉到的意象,這個小客體的不可化簡,屬於意象的層次。擁有這個欲望的客體及法則的客體的人,享受他的母親的人,伊底普斯給予他的名字,走更進一步,他看到他所做的。你們知道那時會發生什麼事。

How can we choose the word, how can one say what is of the order of the unsayable and whose image nevertheless I want to make emerge for you? The fact that he sees what he has done has as a consequence that he sees – this is the word before which I stumble – the moment afterwards his own eyes swollen with their vitreous humours on the ground, a confused pile of filth since – how can we put it? – because since he had torn his eyes from their sockets he had quite obviously lost his sight.

我們如何選擇這個字,我們如何說屬於不可說的層次,什麼意象我想要跟你們呈現?他看到他所做的,作為他所看到的。這就是這個字,我結結巴巴說不出來。後來到這個時刻,他自己的眼睛因腫脹,因為眼球掉落在地板上,污穢一攤。我們要如何來表達它?因為他已經將他的眼睛從他的眼眶裏挖出來。顯而易見的,他完全喪失他的視覺。

And nevertheless it is not that he does not see them, see them as such, as cause-object finally unveiled of the final, the
ultimate, no longer guilty, but beyond the limits, concupiscence, that of having wanted to know.

可是,這並不是因為他沒有看見它們,看見它們這個樣子,當這個最後,最終的客體的原因,被揭發開來,不再是犯罪,而是超越了這個限制,這個異常強烈的欲望,想要知道的欲望

The tradition even says that it is starting from that moment that he really becomes a seer. At Colonus he sees as far as it is possible to see and so far ahead that he sees the future destiny of Athens.

傳統甚至說,從那個時刻開始,他真正成為一位預言家。在科隆那斯,他儘可能看出,高瞻遠矚地看出。亞典當未來命運。

What is the moment of anxiety? Is it what makes possible this
gesture through which Oedipus can tear out his eyes, make this
sacrifice of them, this offering, this ransom of blindness in which his destiny is accomplished? Is that what anxiety is, the possibility, let us say, that man has of mutilating himself? No.

什麼是焦慮的時刻呢?這就是為什麼伊底普斯撕挖出他的眼睛的這個姿態,成為可能?使眼睛作為犧性品,這個貢奉的犧性成為可能?這個盲眼的贖金成為可能?他的命運以兩眼瞎盲作為終結?這難道就是焦慮的本質,我們不妨說,人有可能自殘?不。

(7) It is properly that which through this image, I am striving
to designate for you: it is that an impossible sight threatens
you of your own eyes on the ground.

適當來說,透過這個意象,我正在設法跟你們指示:一個不可能的景象威脅你在地面上自己的眼睛。

Here I believe is the surest key that you can always rediscover
under whatever style of approach the phenomenon of anxiety
presents itself for you.

我相信,確實的關鍵就在此,你們總是能夠重新發現,無論在怎樣的方法之下,焦慮的現象呈現給你。

And then, however expressive, however provocative may be, as one might say, the narrowness of the locality that I designate for you as being that which is circumscribed by anxiety, you should notice that this image is found there as beyond the limits, not because of some preciousness in my choice, it is not an eccentric choice; it is, once I have designated it for you, well and truly frequent to encounter it.

無論它是如何的生動,如何的挑釁,我們不妨說,我指明給你們的地區性的狹窄,作為被焦慮所限制。你們應該注意到,這個意象被找到,當著是超越這個限制,不是因為某種我的選擇定珍貴。它並不是一個怪癖的選擇。它道道地地是我們時常遭遇的選擇,一但我跟你們指明它。

Go to the first exhibition currently open to the public, at the Musee des Arts Decoratifs and you will see two Zurbarans, one from Montpellier, the other from somewhere else which represent for you I believe, Lucy and Agatha each one with their eyes on a plate, the match of their breasts.

請你們去參加這首此地展覽會,它目前開放給大眾,在繆司藝術美術館。你們會看到兩個蘇巴蘭人,一位來自蒙培立爾,另外一個來自其他某個地方。我相信露西跟阿甘撒所表現出了。她的眼睛放置在盤子上,好似跟她的雙乳配對。

Martyrs, let us say, which means witnesses of what is seen here moreover, that it is not, as I told you, what is possible, namely the fact that these eyes being denucleated, these breasts being torn off, which is anxiety. Because in truth, something which also deserves to be noticed, these Christian images are not especially badly tolerated, despite the fact that some people for reasons which are not always the best are a bit fastidious about them.

讓我們這樣說,烈士意味著,在此所被見證到的東西。如同我所告訴你的,這不是可能的東西,換句話說,這些眼睛正被除掉眼球,這些乳房正在被撕開。這就是焦慮。因為在真理當中,某件東西也應該被注意到。這些基督教的意象,並沒有特別嚴重地被容忍,儘管有些人對她們有點挑剔,理由也未必很充分。

Stendhal, speaking about San Stefano il Rotondo in Rome finds
that these images which are on the walls are disgusting.
Undoubtedly in the place he names they are rather lacking in art so that one is introduced, I must say, in a more lively fashion to their signification.

史坦達爾,談到在羅馬的梵蒂岡大教堂時,發現到,這些在牆壁上意象是令人厭惡的。無可置疑,在他提到的這個地方,他們是相當欠缺藝術,所以我必須說,他們的意義,以一個更加生動的方式,介紹給我們。

But these charming persons that Zurbaran presents to us, by
presenting these objects on a plate, present us with nothing
other than something that could be on occasion – and we do not deprive ourselves of it – the object of our desire: in no way do these images introduce us, I think, for the majority of us, to the order of anxiety.

但是蘇巴蘭呈現給我們的這些迷人的人物,他將這些客體擺放在盤子上,呈現給我們的道道地地就是某件,可能有時候就是我們欲望的客體。(我們並沒有剝奪我們自己這個客體):我認為,這些意象絲毫沒有要介紹我們焦慮的秩序,對於我們大多數而言。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

Anxiety 90 Jacques Lacan

December 23, 2010

Anxiety 90

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK X
雅克、拉康研討會第十冊

ANXIETY 論焦慮

1962 – 1963

Seminar 13: Wednesday 6 March 1963

It is easy to give immediately its support to this vor. Etwas of Freud, of course, because Freud articulates it in the article and in all sorts of ways: it is what he calls the internal danger, Gefahr or Gefährdung, the one which comes from within.

我們很容易當下給予它的支持,對於這個「先前」。當然,那是佛洛伊德的某件東西,因為佛洛伊德在一篇文章裏表達它。以各種的方式,這就是他所謂的「內在的危險」,這個從裏面出來的危險。

As I told you: it is a matter of not contenting yourself with this notion of danger, Gefahr or Gefährdung. Because, if I already signaled earlier its problematic character when an external danger is involved – in other words, what warns the subject that it is a danger if not the fear itself, if not the anxiety – but the sense that the term internal danger can have is too linked to the function of a whole structure that must be preserved, of a whole order of what we call defence, for us not to see that in the very term defence the function of danger is itself implied, but is not for all that clarified.

容我告訴你們:這件事情並不是要讓你們對於危險的觀念,感到安心。假如我早先已經指明它的問題所在地特性,當一個外在的危險被牽涉到。換句話說,警告生命主體的東西,這種危險並不是恐懼的本身,並不是焦慮的本身,而是這種意義,內在危險這個術語所具有的意義,太過於跟我們必須保留的整個結構的功用緊連在一起,跟我們所謂的防衛的整個機制緊連在一起,以致於我們無法看出,就在防衛機制這個術語裏,就隱藏著危險的功用,但是並沒有因此就被澄清。

Let us try therefore to follow the structure in a more step by step way and to designate clearly where we intend to fix, to locate this trait of signal on which indeed Freud dwelt as being the one which is the most proper to indicate to us, to us analysts, the usage that we can make of the function of anxiety.

因此,讓我們設法按部就班地遵照這個結構,清楚地指明,我們打算在哪里確定,找出這個訊息的特徵。佛洛伊德確實詳述過這個特徵,當作是最適合指示給我們,給我們精神分析師。我們能夠用焦慮的功用解釋這個用法。

This is what I aim at reaching along the path that I am trying to lead you.

這就是我打算到達的目標,當我沿著我正在引導你們探討的途徑。

Only the notion of the real, in the opaque function which is the one from which you know I begin in order to oppose to it that of the signifier, allows us to orientate ourselves and to say already that this Etwas before which anxiety operates as a (5) signal, is something which is let us say for man “necessary”- in quotation marks – an irreducible aspect of this real.

只有真實界的這個觀念,在這個模糊的功用,你們從這個功用知道,我開始用意符的功用,來跟它對立。它讓我們能夠定向我們自己,並且已經說:這個某件東西,在它之前,焦慮運作充當是一種訊息,是某件對於人是「必需」的東西,容我們這樣說。我用引號將「必需」括弧,這是真實界一個不可化簡單部份。

It is in this sense that I risked giving you the formula that among all the signals, anxiety is the one which does not deceive.

以這種意義,我大膽給予你們這個公式:在所有的訊息當中,焦慮是最不會欺騙的東西。

Anxiety then is the signal of the real and – as I told you – of an irreducible mode under which this real presents itself in experience, this is just now, at the point that we are at, the guide, the guiding thread that I would ask you to hold onto to see where it leads us.

如同我告訴過你們,焦慮因此是真實界的這個訊息,一個無可化簡的模式。在這個模式下,這個真實界在精神分析經驗呈現它自己。這是剛才在我們所在的這一點,這個引導,這個引導的線索,我想要要求你們繼續去看到,它會引導我們通往哪里。

This real and its place, is exactly what with the support of the sign, of the bar there can be inscribed the operation which,
arithmetically, is called division. I already taught you to
situate the process of subjectification in so far as it is at the locus of the Other, under the primary species of the signifier, that the subject has to be constituted; at the locus of the Other and upon the given of this treasury of the signifier already constituted in the Other and just as essential for any advent of human life as everything that we can conceive of in the natural Umwelt.

這個真實界及其位置,確實是算術上所謂的區分的東西,憑藉著這個符號的支援,這個禁制的支持,這個運作能夠被銘記在那裏。我已經教導過你們,去定位生命主體化的過程。它是大它者的軌跡,屬於意符的原初的品種。生命的主體必須在大它者的軌跡形成自己。已經在大它者形成的意符的這個寶藏的符號,對於人類生活的任何來臨,都是同樣的重要,如同我們在自然界的環境,我們所能構想的每一樣東西。

It is with respect to the treasury of the signifier which already awaits him, constitutes the deviation where he has to situate himself, that the subject, the subject at this mythical level which does not yet exist, which only exists
starting from the signifier, which is prior to it, which is constitutive with respect to it, that the subject carries out this first interrogative operation: in 0, if you wish, how many times S?

關於這個已經在等待他的意符的寶藏,形成這樣的偏離。他必須將自己定位在那個偏離位置,生命的主體,處在這個生命層次的生命的主體,還沒有生命的實存。它只是從意符,才開始生命的實存。這變成意符在生命的實存之前,意符成為生命實存的內涵。這個生命的主體執行這個首先就受到質疑的運作:生命的主體,有多少次是真實地存在於大它者那裏?

And the operation being posited here in a certain fashion which
is here in the 0 marked by this interrogation appears here, the difference between this response 0 and the given 0, something that is the remainder, the irreducible of the subject, it is o. o is what remains irreducible in this total operation of the advent of the subject to the locus of the Other, and it is from this that it is going to take on its function.

在此被提出的運作,以某種的方式。在此被這個質疑的這個大它者,出現在這裏。在這個反應的小客體跟這個特定的大它者之間的差別,某件剩餘物,某件生命主體的不可化簡之物,就是這小客體。小客體是生命的主體來臨到大它者的軌跡的整體的運作中,始終是不可化簡的東西。就是從這裏,它將形成它的功用。

The relationship of this o to the S, the o in so far as it is precisely that which represents the S in a real and irreducible fashion, this o over S, o/S , this is what completes the operation of division, that which in effect since 0, as one might say, is something which has no common denominator, is outside the common denominator between the o and the S.

這個小客體跟生命主體的關係,這個小客體確實是代表生命的主體,以一個真實而不可化簡單方式。這個在生命主體上面的小客體,這就是為什麼區分的運作被完成。事實上,如我們所說的,既然大它者是某件沒有共同分母的東西,它是位於這個小客體跟這個生命主體之間的共同分母的外面。

If we wish conventionally to complete the operation all the same, we put as numerator the remainder, o, as denominator the divisor, the S. $ is equivalent to o over S, o/S.

(6) This remainder, therefore, in so far as it is the end
(chute), as one might say, of the subjective operation, this
remainder, we recognise in it here structurally, in an analogy
from calculation, the lost object; this is what we have to deal with, on the one hand in desire, on the other hand in anxiety. We have to deal with it in anxiety, logically, as one might say, before the moment that we have to deal with it in desire.

假如我們仍然希望用傳統方式完成這個運作,我們就將這個小客體的殘餘物,充當分子,這個區分者充當分母,這個生命的主體就相當等於是小客體位於生命的主體之上。因此,這個剩餘物,我們不妨這樣說,就是生命主體化運作的結束。這個剩餘物,在此,我們從結構上認出它,以一種精心細算的類比,當著是失落的客體。這就是我們必須處理的東西,一方面在欲望裏,另一方面在焦慮當中。我們必須在焦慮中處理它,我們不妨說,從邏輯上講,在我們必須在欲望的層次上處理它的時刻之前。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

Anxiety 89 Jacques Lacan

December 23, 2010

Anxiety 89

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK X
雅克、拉康研討會第十冊

ANXIETY 論焦慮

1962 – 1963

Seminar 13: Wednesday 6 March 1963

It is not enough to evoke the first reference summoned to my
memory by such propositions: I remembered what I believe I had already underlined for you in a little, one cannot call that a short story, notation, impression of Chekov which was translated using the term “frights (frayeurs)”.

光是召喚第一個指稱是不足夠的,我由這些陳述帶給記憶的聯想:我記得我相信我曾經跟你們強調過,我們不能稱那個是一個小故事,文章,及契可夫式的印象。這個故事,文章及印象翻譯時,被用以「恐懼」一詞。

I tried it in vain to inform myself of the title of this short story in Russian; because, inexplicably, none of my Russian-speaking listeners were able to find for me this notation, which is perfectly well located with its year in the French translation, even with the help of this date, in the editions of Chekov which are nevertheless in general produced chronologically.

我曾經白費力氣,設法告知我自己,有關這篇俄文短篇小說的篇名。因為無法解釋地,會說俄文的我的聽眾,沒有人能幫我找到這篇文章。可是,它的法文譯本出版年月倒是標明得很清楚。憑在這個日期的幫助一定能夠找到,因為一般來說,契可夫的作品都是按照出版先後順序排列。

It is peculiar, it is upsetting and I cannot say that I am not disappointed about it – in this notation under the term of “Frights”, the frights that Chekov himself experienced – I already pointed out to you once, I believe, what
was involved –

真是特別,真是令人懊惱,我無法說,我不對這件事感到失望。這篇文章的篇名是「恐懼」,契可夫自己經驗到的恐懼。我己經跟你們指出,我相信裏面牽涉到、、、

one day, with a young boy who was driving his sledge – his droschka, I believe it is called, something like that – he is going along a plane, and, in the distance, at sunset, the sun already setting on the horizon, he sees in a church tower which appears, at a range that he could reasonably see its details, he sees flickering through a skylight on a very (3) high storey of the tower to which he knows, because he knows the place, one cannot gain entry in any way, a mysterious inexplicable flame which nothing allows him to attribute to any effect of reflection; there is here obviously the mapping out of something:

有一天,他跟一位替他駕駛他的雪橇的年輕男孩,(他的雪車,我相信他是這樣稱呼,大約是這樣)。他正沿著一個坡地前行,在遠處,在落日的地方,太陽己經落入地平線,他看的一所教堂的塔樓,在山上,他很有理由看得很詳細,他看透過天光的閃爍到在這個高的塔樓層。他知道這個塔樓層,因為他對這個地方很熟悉。無論如何,我們無法進入這個地方,一個神秘的無法解釋的火焰,他想不出有任何東西能夠被用來描繪它反映的影響。顯而易見的,有某件東西呈現出來。

he makes a short reckoning of what can or cannot account for the existence of this phenomenon and, having really excluded every kind of known cause,” he is all of a sudden gripped by something which I believe in reading this text can in no way be called anxiety, he is gripped by what he himself calls moreover, for want obviously of being able to have at present the Russian term, which was translated by frights – I believe this is what corresponds best to the text – it is of the order not of anxiety, but of fear (peur); and what he is afraid of, is not anything that threatens him, it is something which has precisely this character of referring to the unknown in what is manifesting itself to him.

他在心頭簡短地打量一下,到底能不能夠解釋這個現象的存在。他將各種已知的原因都排除在外後,他突然心中充滿了某件東西,當我閱讀這個文本時,我相信根本不能夠被稱為是焦慮。他心中充滿了他自己稱為的「恐懼」,顯而易見,他無法有我們目前的俄國術語,這可以翻譯成為「恐懼」。我相信這是跟文本最貼切的,它不是屬於焦慮的層次,而是屬於恐懼。他所害怕的,並不是任何威脅他的東西,而是某件東西,具有未知的特性,展現自己在他面前。

The examples that he gives subsequently under this same heading, namely the fact that one day, he sees passing
along the horizon, on the railway, a type of wagon which gives
him the impression, to hear his description, of a phantom wagon, because nothing is pulling it, nothing explains its movement: a wagon passes at full speed along the curve of the railway which is there at that moment before him. Where has it come from?

隨後在相同的標題下,他舉的這些例子。換句話說,有一天,他看到沿著地平線,在火車鐵軌上,有一種馬車,給他這個印象,聽到他描述到有一種魅影的馬車,因為沒有東西拉著它賓士,沒有東西解釋它的動作。一台馬車快速賓士,沿著鐵軌的彎道,當時就在他的面前。這部馬車是從哪里來?

Where is it going? This sort of apparition torn away in
appearance from any determinism that can be located, here again is something that throws him for a moment into disorder, a veritable panic, which is well and truly of the order of fear: there is no menace there either and the characteristic of anxiety is undoubtedly lacking in this sense that the subject is neither seized, nor involved in this innermost part of himself which is the aspect by which anxiety is characterised, on which I am insisting.

它將賓士到哪里?這種魅影外表上,我們無法找出它命定的意義。在此有某件東西讓他一時陷入混亂當中。這是一個可以驗證的驚恐,道道地地屬於是恐懼的層次。那裏並沒有任何生命的威脅,無可置疑,焦慮的特性在這個意義上是欠缺的。生命的主體既沒有被攫住,也沒有牽涉到他自己這個最內在的部分,我現在一直堅持的焦慮被表現特性的部份。

The third example, is the example of a thoroughbred dog which
nothing allows him, given the fact that he has completely mapped out everything that surrounds him, whose presence nothing allows him to explain at this time, in this place; he begins to foment the mystery of Faust’s dog, thinks he can see the form under which the devil is approaching him; it is well and truly from the side of the unknown that fear develops here, and it is not of an object, it is not of the dog who is there that he is afraid, it is of something else, it is behind the dog.

第三個例子,是一隻受過訓練的純種狗。假如考慮到,他已經完全描繪出四周環境的一切,在這個時候,他沒有辦法來解釋這個狗的存在,在這個地方。他開始聯想到「浮士德」的狗,他認為他能夠看出這條狗的形狀,惡魔化身為狗接近他。確確實實就是從未知的這一邊,恐懼發展出來。這並不是對於一個客體的恐懼,他所恐懼的,並不是在那裏的這條狗,而是某件其他的東西。那就是狗背後的東西。

On the other hand, it is clear that what is insisted on, that the effects of fear have in a way a character of adequation, in (4) principle, namely of unleashing a flight reaction, is
sufficiently compromised by what one must indeed put the accent on, that in many cases paralysing fear manifests itself in an inhibiting, even fully disorganising action, indeed can throw the subject into a disarray which is least adapted to the response, least adapted to the finality, which might be supposed to be the adequate subjective form.

在另一方面,顯而易見的,他所堅持的東西,恐懼的影響在某方面,原則上,具有一視同仁的特性。換句話說,解放出一種逃避的反應。這確實是我們必須強調的東西,給予充份地緩和。在許多狀況,令人麻痹的恐懼顯現它自己,以一種壓抑,甚至是令人崩潰的行動,確實會使生命的主體陷入混亂。這是最適應不良的反應,對於最後結局的最適應不良。這可以被認為完全是生命主體性的形式。

It is elsewhere, therefore, that there must be sought the
distinction, the reference by which anxiety is to be
distinguished from it. And you can well imagine that it is not simply a paradox, a desire to play with an inversion, if I put forward here before you that anxiety is not without object, a formula whose form undoubtedly designates this subjective
relationship which is that of a halting-place, a starting-place from which I want to advance further today; because of course the term object has been long prepared here by me with an accent which is distinguished from what the authors have up to now defined as object when they speak about the object of fear.

因此,這個區別,焦慮應該跟它區別出來的這個指稱,應該在別的地方去尋找。你們能夠很清楚地想像,這不僅僅是一種矛盾,一種想要玩弄一種逆轉的欲望,假如我在跟你們面前提出,焦慮並不是沒有客體、這一個公式的形式,無可置疑地,指明這個生命主體性的關係,一個停頓位置的關係,一個出發點。從那裏,今天我想要繼續探討下去。當然,對於「客體」這個術語,我已經準備良久,我強調它跟迄今的作者所定義的客體,大不相同,當他們談論到恐懼的客體。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

Anxiety 88 Jacques Lacan

December 22, 2010

Anxiety 88

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK X
雅克、拉康研討會第十冊

ANXIETY 論焦慮

1962 – 1963

Seminar 13: Wednesday 6 March 1963

As long as this primary truth around which alone can turn a valid dialectic of love is put for you in the ranks of an Erniedrigunq an accident of love life, of an Oedipus complex which grows paws, well then, you will understand absolutely nothing about what is involved, about the way the question should be posed as regards what the desire of the analyst may be. It is because it is necessary to start from the experience of love, as I did in the year of my seminar on transference, to situate the topology in which this transference can be inscribed, it is because it is necessary to start from there that today I am bringing you back to it.

只要這個原初的真理,被呈現給你們,(戀愛的具體變證法,僅能繞著這個原初的真理運轉,)在戀愛生活的意外產生的羞辱層次上,在伊底普斯情結張牙舞爪的層次上,你們絕對無法瞭解到會牽涉到什麼,關於這個問題應該如何被提出的方式,關於這個精神分析師的欲望可能是什麼。這是因為要從這個愛的經驗開始是需要的,如同我的作為,在論移情的講座的那一年,定位這個移情能夠被銘記的拓樸地形。這是因為我們需要從那裏開始,今天我要引導你們回到這個問題。

But no doubt my discourse will take on, from the fact that I am going to terminate it here, an interrupted appearance. What I produced there at the final term as a formula, can be taken as a pause, a chapter heading or conclusion as you wish.
但是無可置疑的,我們真理的論述將會形成一個斷斷續續的現象,因為我將要在此中斷一陣子。我在那裏所介紹的,最後作為公式的術語,可以被用來當著是一個停頓,一個章節,開頭或是結論,悉聽尊便。

After all it is permissible for you to take it as a stumbling block or if you wish as a banality. But it is here that I intend that we should take up the next time the rest of our discourse to situate in it exactly the indicative function of anxiety and what it will allow us subsequently to gain access to.

畢竟,你們被容許把它當作是一個絆腳石,或是把它當作是陳腔濫調。但是在此,我打算,下一次我們應該從事我們其餘的真理的論述,要在裏面確實定位焦慮的指標功用,以及隨後我們將能夠接近哪里。

6.3.63 XIII 1
Seminar 13: Wednesday 6 March 1963

We are going then to continue our journey of approach to anxiety, which I would like you to understand is indeed of the order of an approach. Of course, you are already sufficiently advised by what I am producing here, that I want to teach you that anxiety is not what shallow people think. Nevertheless you will see, in rereading afterwards the texts on this major point, that what you have learned is far from being absent from them; simply it is masked and veiled at the same time, it is masked by formulae which are styles perhaps that are too cautious under their coating, as one might say, their carapace.

我們將繼續我們的探討焦慮之旅。我想要你們瞭解到確實是一個方法的秩序。當然,我在這裏產生的言詞,已經充份地勸告你們,我要教導你們,焦慮並不是人們思維淺薄的原因。可是,你們將會看出,當你們以後重新閱讀有關這個重點的文本,你們所學習到的,絕對逃脫不了是在那裏。只是它同時被掩蓋遮蔽。它被一些公式所掩蓋。我們不妨這樣說,這些公式的風格,外表堂皇,道貌岸然。

The best authors allow there to appear what I already put the accent on for you, that it is not objektlos, that it is not without an object.

即使是優秀的作者,都還是免不了表現出,我已經跟你們強調的這些表像。它並不沒有客體。

The sentence which in Hemmung, Symptom und Angst precedes, in Appendix B “Ergänzung zur Angst”, “Supplementary remarks on anxiety”, the very sentence which precedes the reference that Freud makes, following in this the tradition of indétermination, to the Ob jektlosiqkeit of anxiety – and after all I would only need to remind you of the bulk of the article itself to say that this characteristic of being without an object cannot be retained – but the sentence just before, Freud says anxiety is “Die Angst …. ist Angst vor etwas”, it is essentially anxiety about something.

在「壓抑、病徵、及焦慮」及附錄的「論焦慮的補充論點」,有個句子在佛洛伊德發表的指稱之前,遵照猶豫不決的傳統,到焦慮的這個客體。畢竟,我所需要提醒你們,有關這篇文章的長篇大論說,沒有客體的生命的實存,這樣的特性是不可能獲得的。但是先前的這個句子,佛洛伊德說:焦慮基本上是關於某件事情。

Can we be satisfied with this formula? Of course not. I think
that we ought to go much further, say more about this structure,
this structure which already, as you see, opposes it by contrast, if it is a fact that anxiety, being the relationship with this object that I approached which is the cause of desire, is opposed by contrast with this vor, how has this thing which I placed for you promoting desire behind desire, gone in front of it, this is perhaps one of the sources of the problem.

我們能夠滿意於這個公式嗎?當然不滿意。我認為我們應該更進一步探討,對於這個結構更加說明。你們看出,這個結構以對比來跟它對立,假如焦慮是跟我探討的這個客體的關係,它就是欲望的原因。它就是跟這個先前之物相對立。我跟你們提出的這件東西。作為提升欲望背後的欲望,如何會走到它的前面?這確實是難題的來源之一。

In any case, let us underline clearly that we find ourselves in the tradition before what is called an almost literary theme, a common place, the one between fear and anxiety which all the authors, referring to the semantic position, oppose at least at the beginning, even if subsequently they tend to bring them together or to reduce them to one another – which is not the case among the best of them. At the beginning undoubtedly one tends to emphasise this opposition between fear and anxiety by, let us say, differentiating their position with respect to the object.

如論如何,讓我們清楚地強調,我們發現我們自己處於所謂的文學的主題的傳統當中,這是一個公共領域,處於恐懼跟焦慮之間。所有的作者,提到這個語意學到立場,至少開始時,都表示反對,即使隨後他們都傾向於將它們聚攏在一起,或是將它們互相化簡。其中佼佼者,可並不是這種情形。無可置疑的,在開始時,我們會傾向於強調這個恐懼與焦慮的對立。我們不妨說,我們區別它們的立場,跟這個客體的關係。

6.3.63 XIII 2
And it is really tangible, paradoxical, significant of the error (2) thus committed that one is led to stress that fear, for its part, has one, has an object.

當我們被引導去強調,恐懼就其本身而言,有一個客體。我們因此所犯的錯誤是具體而明,是矛盾而又重要。

Breaking through a certain characteristic, there is here an
objective danger, Gefahr, dangeite, Gef “áhrdung, a danger
situation, the entry of the subject into danger, which would
after all deserve a pause: what is a danger? We are going to be told that fear is by its nature, adequate to, in correspondence with, entsprechend to the object from which the danger comes.

當我們突破某一個特性,在此會有一個客體的危險,一個危險的情境。生命的主體進入危險。畢竟,這個危險值得我們稍微停頓下來。這個危險是什麼?有人將會告訴我們,恐懼的本身的特質,相當等於,相當對應於這個客體,危險所出現的客體。

The article of Goldstein on the problem of anxiety on which we will pause, is in this regard very significant of this sort of slipping, of seduction, of capture, as one might say, of the pen of an author – who in this matter was able to gather together, as you will see, the essential and very precious characteristics of our subject – the seduction of the pen by a thesis, insisting in a fashion which one can say is in no way required by its subject in this respect – because it is anxiety that is involved – insisting, as one might say on the oriented character of fear, as if fear were already made up completely of the locating of the object, of the organisation of the response, of the opposition, of the Entgegendstehen between what is Umwelt and everything which in the subject has to face up to it.

高斯坦討論焦慮的問題這篇文章,我們將會停下來討論。在這一方面,它是非常重要的,作為一位作者之筆的這種的溜滑,引誘,捕捉,我們不妨這樣說。你們將會看出,在這件事情上,作者能夠將我們的客體的基本珍貴的特性,聚集起來。這是一篇論文之筆的引誘,它以某種方式堅持,我們能夠說,在這一方面,這種方式根本就沒有被它的生命主體所要求,因為它牽涉到的是焦慮。它堅持恐懼具有某種定向的特性,我們可以這樣說,好像恐懼已經是完全由這個客體的位置所形成,由這個反應及對立的組織,由四周的環境及生命的主體必須面對它的一切所形成。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

雄伯手記991220

December 22, 2010

雄伯手記991220

王禎和是我早年頗為心儀的一位作家。他使用寫實主義的筆法,生靈活現地描繪三四年代經濟貧困時代的卑微人物。可是卻習慣在篇首套上一兩句不著邊際的引言。例如在「嫁妝一牛車」的篇首,他引用的是James Joyce 「人生終於也有修伯特的音樂無聲以對的時刻!」在「五月十三節」,他引用的是杜甫的「已忍伶娉十年事,但求棲息一枝安」。

美國劇作家尤金、奧尼爾的「長夜迢迢日漫漫」Long Day ‘s Journey Into Night,是我大學時期愛不釋手的劇本,我詳讀中英文的版本。有一年在師大進修暑研所的課程。我敬愛的C教授引述到它,評論說:「家庭之內爭吵到這等程度,實在是有夠悲慘。」

當時我跟他提出不同看法:「家庭的每一個角色,父母兄弟之間,坦誠披露心聲,雖然場面似乎喧嘩,但是事情過後,大家反思,反而是彼此心靈更加靠近的契機。」

後來,我閱讀日本作家「廚川白村」的「苦悶的象徵」。他清楚地分析美國文化跟日本文化的差異:「美國人的情感表露在外,愛恨分明,但是事情過後,大家都要互相包容原諒。但是日本人的情感內蘊,隱忍控制,以維持表面的平靜,但是一旦忍無可忍,則永遠一刀兩斷。」

我有一次在高中學生的課堂上,跟學生談論到這兩種文化的差異。出乎意料之外,學生都偏愛美國文化的坦率表現。「隱忍控制,或是一刀兩斷,聽起來都太可怕了。」她們評論說。

Anxiety 87 Jacques Lacan

December 22, 2010

Anxiety 87

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK X
雅克、拉康研討會第十冊

ANXIETY 論焦慮

1962 – 1963

Seminar 12: Wednesday 27 February 1963

What does the desire of the Other represent qua coming from this angle? It is here that the signal takes on its value, the signal that, if it is produced in a place that one can call the ego topologically, clearly concerns someone else. The ego is the locus of the signal. But it is not for the ego that the signal is given. It is quite obvious that if this lights up at the level of the ego, it is in order that the subject – one cannot call it anything else – should be warned about something.

從這個角度來看,大它者的欲望本身代表什麼?就是在這裏,訊息形成它的價值,這個訊息顯而易見關係到每一個其他的人,假如它被產生在拓樸圖形上,我們能夠稱為的自我。這個自我就是這個訊息的軌跡。但是訊息被給予,不是因為這個自我。這是相當顯而易見到,假如這個在自我層次的啟明,那是為了要讓生命的主體,被警告某關某件事(我們無法稱呼它為別的東西)。

He is warned about this something which is a desire, namely a demand which does not concern any need, which does not concern
anything other than my very being, namely which puts me in
question – let us say that it cancels it out: in principle it is (24) not addressed to me as present – which is addressed to me, if you wish, as expected, which is addressed to me much more again as lost and which, in order that the Other should be able to locate himself (s’y retrouve) requests my loss.

他被警告有關這件事,那就是欲望。換句話說,一個跟任何需要無關的要求。這個要求跟任何其他事情無關,除了就是關係到我生命的實存。換句話說,它讓我受到質疑,(我們不妨說,它取消生命的實存)。原則上,它並不是針對著我,作為目前的實存。它是針對我,作為未來的期望,它是針對我,作為失落。這樣,大它者才能找出它自己的位置, 要求我的失落。

That is what anxiety is. The desire of the Other does not
recognise me, as Hegel believes, which renders the question quite easy.

那就是焦慮的本質。大它者的欲望並沒有認出我,如黑格爾所相信的。假如是那樣,問題就好解決。

For if he recognises me, since he will never recognise me
sufficiently, all that is left to me is to use violence.
Therefore he neither recognises me nor miscognises me. Because
that would be too easy: I can always escape from it by struggle
and violence. He puts me in question, interrogates me at the
very root of my own desire as o, as cause of this desire and not as object, and it is because he is aiming at this in a
relationship of antecedence, in a temporal relationship, that I can do nothing to break this grip except by engaging myself in it.

因為假如大它者認出我,一切我所剩餘的東西,都是要使用暴力。(還好,大它者從來沒有完全認出我)。因此,它既沒有認出我,也沒有誤認為。因為那將是太輕而易舉:我總是能夠憑藉奮鬥跟暴力,討避它。它使我受到質疑,在我自己的欲望的根源質疑我,作為大它者,作為這個欲望的原因,而不是作為客體。那是因為他目標朝著這個,以一個優先存在的關係,以一個時間先後的關係。我沒有辦法擺脫這樣的掌握,除了就是讓自己身陷其中。

It is this temporal dimension which is anxiety, and it is
this temporal dimension which is that of analysis. It is because the desire of the analyst stimulates in me this dimension of expectation that I am caught in this something which is the efficacy of the analysis. I would really like him to see me as such and such, for him to make of me an object.

焦慮就是這個時間到向度。這個時間的向度就是精神分析學的時間的向度。那是因為精神分析師的這個欲望,在我身上刺激這個期望的向度,使我身陷在某件屬於精神分析學的效率的難題之中。我真的想要他看到我,是如此這個樣子,讓他能夠解釋我,作為客體。

The relationship to the other, the Hegelian one here, is very convenient, because then in effect I have all sorts of resistances against that, and against this other dimension let us say a good part of the resistance slips. Only for that it is necessary to know what desire is and to see its function, not at all simply on the plane of the struggle, but there where Hegel – and for good reason – did not want to go looking for it, on the plane of love.

這個跟大它者的關係,黑格爾在此的這個關係,輕易好用。因為事實上,對於它,我有各種的抗拒。對於這個大它者的向度,我們不妨說,它是抗拒滑動的一個重要的部份。僅是這樣,我們就有需要知道,欲望是什麼,我們有需要看出它的功用,根本不是僅僅在這個奮鬥的層面,而是黑格爾不想要去尋求的地方,在愛的層面。這是很有道理的。

Now, if you go – and perhaps you will go with me, because after
all the more I think about it and the more I speak about it and the more I find indispensable to illustrate the things I am speaking about – if you read the article by Lucia Tower, you will see this story: two gentlemen (bonshommes) – to speak as one spoke after the war, when one spoke about ladies (des bonnes femmes) in a certain milieu – you will see two gentlemen with whom, what she recounts, what she recounts is particularly illustrative and efficacious, they are two love stories.

現在,假如你們去,(或許你們願意跟我去,因為畢竟,我越是思考這個問題,我越是談論到它,我就越發現我無可免除的,必須要舉例說明我正在談論的這些東西。)假如你們閱讀路西亞、塔武爾的文章,你們將會看出這個故事:兩位紳士,(我們談論紳士,好像二次大戰後,在某種的情境當中,我們談論女士的態度),你們將會看出,有兩位紳士,她重新描述,她重述的內容,特別可以用來作為例子,是很有效的。有兩個愛情故事。

Why did the thing succeed? In one case when she was touched
herself, it is not she who touched the other, it is the other who put her on to the plane of love; and in the other case the other did not get to it and that is not interpretation, because it is written down and she says why.

為什麼這件事情可以作為例證,而且有效?在一種情況,當她自己被礎及到,不是她礎及到大它者,而是大它者將她放置在愛情的層面。在另外一種情況,大它者並沒有到達它。這不是我牽強附會,因為它被記載下來,而且她說明原因。

(23) And this is designed to induce in us some reflections on the fact that, if there are some people who have said something sensible about counter-transference, it is uniquely women.

這就是被設計用來在我們身上,誘導某些的反思:假如有某些人說了某件一針見血的話,關於反移情,那絕對是非女人莫屬。

You will say to me: Michael Balint? Only it is rather striking
that he wrote his article with Alice. Ella Sharpe, Margaret
Little, Barbara Low, Lucia Tower.

你們將會對我說:那是米契爾、巴林說的嗎?這是相當引人注意到,他跟愛麗絲,艾拉、沙普,小瑪格麗特,路西亞、塔武爾,一起寫了他的這篇文章。

Why is it that it is women who, let us already simply say, have dared to speak about the thing in an overwhelming majority and that they should have said interesting things?

為什麼是女人?讓我們簡單明暸地說,為什麼是女人以壓倒性的多數,大膽地談論這件事情?為什麼是她們說出很耐人尋味的話?

It is a question that will be completely clarified if we take it from the angle I am talking about, namely the function of desire, the function of desire in love in connection with which, I think, you are mature enough to hear the following – which moreover is a truth which has always been well known, but to which its place has never been given, it is that in
so far as desire intervenes in love and has as I might say an essential stake in it, desire does not concern the beloved
object.

假如我們從我正在談論的這個角度來看,這個問題將可以完全被澄清。換句話說,欲望的功用,戀愛中的欲望的功用。關於這個功用,我認為你們足夠成熟可以聽以下的話。而且,這是一項眾所周知的真理,但是從來沒有給予這樣的真理的地位。當欲望介入戀愛之中,我不妨說,它會有一個基本的賭注在裏面,欲望關心的並不是所愛的客體。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

Anxiety 86 Jacques Lacan

December 21, 2010

Anxiety 86

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK X
雅克、拉康研討會第十冊

ANXIETY 論焦慮

1962 – 1963

Seminar 12: Wednesday 27 February 1963

This is obviously only a first approximation because everyone knows precisely that the traces are not effaced and that this is what constitutes the aporia of this affair, the aporia which is not one for you, since it is very precisely for this reason that there is elaborated before (22) you the notion of signifier, and that what is involved is, not the effacing of traces, but the return of the signifier to the state of trace, the abolition of this passage from the trace to the signifier which is constituted by what I tried to get you to sense, to describe for you by putting in the parenthesis of the trace, an underlining, a dam, a mark of the trace.

顯而易見,這只是一個最初的接近,因為每一個人確實知道,這些痕跡並沒有被抹除。這是組成這件事情的自我解構的部份。這個自我解構並不是針對著你,確實是因為這個理由,意符的觀念在你們面前被精心設計。所牽涉到的,並不是痕跡的抹除,而是意符回到意符的狀態,從痕跡到意符的過程被廢除。它的內涵就是我設法要你們去感受,我設法跟你們描述,在痕跡的括弧裏,擺上一個底線,一道攔壩,痕跡的記號。

This is what is demolished with the intervention of the real. The real referring the subject back to the trace, abolishes the subject also at the same time: for there is no subject except through the signifier, through this passage to the signifier: a signifier is that which represents the subject for another signifier.

這就是真實界介入時,所拆解的東西。真實界吸引生命主體的意符回到痕跡,同時也廢除生命的主體。因為透過這個意符之外,透過意符的過程之外,別無生命的意符。一個意符是代表生命的主體,針對另外一個意符。

To grasp the source of what is involved here, not in the always
too facile perspective of history and of memory, because
forgetting appears to be a too material, too natural thing for it to be believed that it does not happen all by itself, even though it is the most mysterious thing in the world from the moment that memory is posited as existing. That is why I am trying to introduce you into a dimension which is transversal, not yet as synchronic as the other.

為了要理解在此所牽涉到的來源,不是根據歷史及記憶的輕而易舉的表像。因為遺忘似乎是一種太具體化,太理所當然的事情,所以我們無法相信,它本身根本就沒有發生過。即使這是世界上最神秘的事情,從記憶被提出作為存在的證明。那就是為什麼,我正在設法跟你們介紹進入一個向度。這個向度是跨越空間作為大它者,但還不是同時性。

Let us take the masochist. The maso, as they say, it appears,
somewhere, namely the most enigmatic to be put in suspense from the point of view of perversion. He, you are going to tell me., for his part knows well that it is the Other who enjoys.

讓我們以受虐狂患者為例。如人們所說,受虐狂患者似乎在某個地方,是最謎團一般地存在,從變態狂的觀點而言,它被懸置在那裏。你們將會告訴我,就受虐狂患者而言,他心知肚明,大它者在享受。

This would be then the pervert who has brought his truth to light. He would be the exception to everything that I said earlier about the pervert not knowing how to enjoy: of course, it is always the Other, and the maso is supposed to know it.

因此,這將是變態狂患者將他的真相揭發出來。他將是我先前所說的一切事情的例外,關於這位變態狂患者,他說他不知道如何去享受。當然,總是會有大它者,受虐狂患者應該知道它。

Well then I will no doubt come back to it. As of now I want to emphasise that what escapes the masochist and what puts him in the same position as all the perverts, is that he believes of course that what he is looking for, is the jouissance of the Other; but precisely, since he believes it, that is not what he is looking for. What escapes him, even though it is a tangible truth, really lying about everywhere and within everybody’s reach, but for all that never seen at its true level of functioning, is that he seeks the anxiety of the Other.

嗯,無可置疑的,我將回頭來談論它。現在我想要強調的是,這個受虐狂患者所捉摸不住的,是什麼使他處於跟所有的變態狂患者相同的立場。當然,他相信他所正在尋找的東西,就是大它者的歡爽。但是確實來說,既然他相信它,那就不是他所正在尋找的東西。他所捉摸不住的,即使那是具體明白的真理,到處顯而易見,人人都能掌握到。但是儘管如此,這個真理從來不是在功用的真實的層次,被人看見。他尋求大它者的這個焦慮。

Which does not mean that he is trying to annoy him. Because for want of understanding what is meant by seeking the anxiety of the Other – naturally it is at its gross, even stupid level that things are brought to by a sort of common sense – for want of (23) being able to see the truth there is behind that, of course one abandons this shell in which something more profound is contained, which is formulated in the way that I have just told you.

這並不意味著,他正在使大它者感到懊惱。因為欠缺瞭解尋求大它者的焦慮是什麼意思,當然是處於它粗俗,甚至是愚笨的層次,由一種普通常識顯現出來。由於欠缺能力來看出它背後的這個真理,當然我們就放棄這個貝殼,某件深刻的東西被包含的貝殼。它的說明方式,我剛剛告訴過你們。

This is why it is necessary for us to return to the theory of anxiety, of anxiety as signal, and for us to see the difference, or more exactly to the new thing that is contributed by the dimension introduced by the teaching of Lacan about anxiety in so far as not opposing Freud, but placed for the moment in two columns.

這就是為什麼我們需要回到焦慮的這個理論,焦慮作為訊息。我們需要看出這個差異,更確實地說,這個新穎事物的訊息。這是拉康有關焦慮的教學所介紹的向度所貢獻。這並不是跟佛洛伊德打對台,而是暫時以兩個台柱排列。

We will say that Freud at the end of his elaboration,
speaks about anxiety as signal being produced in the ego
about what? An internal danger. It is a sign representing something for someone: the internal danger for the ego.

我們將會說,佛洛伊德處於他的精心建構的一端,談論到有關焦慮,當著是在自我的領域被產生。產生什麼?產生一個內部的危險。這是一份符號,對於某個人,代表某件東西:對於自我,這是個內部的危險。

The transition, the essential passage which allows this structure itself to be used by giving it its full meaning and this notion of internal, of internal danger to be suppressed: there is no internal danger because – as paradoxically to the eyes of distracted ears, I say, as paradoxically when I returned to it when I gave you my seminar on Ethics, namely to the topology of the Entwurf – there is no internal danger because this envelope of the neurological apparatus, in so far as it is a theory of this apparatus which is given, this envelope has no interior because it has only a single surface, that the Psi-system as Aufbau, as structure, as that which interposes itself between perception and consciousness, is situated in another dimension as other qua locus of the signifier; that henceforward anxiety is introduced at first, as I did it before the seminar of this year, last year, as a specific manifestation at this level of the desire of the Other as such.

這個轉移,這個基本的過程,容許它自己被使用,以給予它的充份的意義。這個內部隊觀念,這個應該被壓制的內部的危險:內部的危險並不存在,因為在心神散亂者的眼睛當中,這是矛盾的。我不妨說,當我回到它時,它是矛盾的。當我跟你們演講精神分析的倫理學的講座,換句話說,探討到這個「輪廓」的拓樸圖形學。內部的危險並不存在,因為這個神經裝置的皮囊,這是這個被給予的神經裝置的一個理論,這個皮囊並沒有內部。因為它只有一個單一的表面。這個「原子累積」的「量子系統」,作為結構,作為將自己賦加在感官跟意識之間。它的位置在另外一個向度,作為意符的其他的軌跡。從此以後,焦慮首先被介紹,如同我在今年、去年的這個講座所做的介紹。我作為一個明確的證明,在大它者本身的欲望的層次。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

Anxiety 85 Jacques Lacan

December 21, 2010

Anxiety 85

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK X
雅克、拉康研討會第十冊

ANXIETY 論焦慮

1962 – 1963

Seminar 12: Wednesday 27 February 1963

Let us take things from the angle, through the way in, defined by this word which has a presentified meaning in the very times in which we live, erotism.

讓我們從這個角度看事情,透過這個方式,被這個字所下的定義。這個字有一個被呈現的意義,我們生活的這個時代,色欲橫流的時代。

We know, that its Sadean if not its sadistic manifestation, is the most exemplary one. Desire presents itself as a will to jouissance from whatever angle it appears – I spoke about the Sadean angle, I did not say the sadistic one, it is just as true for what is called masochism.

我們知道,色欲橫流的薩德,即使不是它的虐待狂的展示,也是最為典範的例子。欲望呈現自己作為一種意志,從任何它出現的角度,取得歡爽。我談論到薩德縱欲的角度,我並沒有說,從這種虐待狂的縱欲角度,因為就所謂的受虐狂的角度而言,情況也是一樣。

It is quite clear that if something is revealed by analytic
experience, it is that even in perversion where desire in sum
appears by presenting itself as what lays down the law, namely as a subversion of the law, it is in fact well and truly the support of a law.

這是相當顯而易見的,假如某件東西被精神分析經驗揭露出來,即使是在變態狂患者,欲望的總數出現,以呈現自己作為奠定法則的東西。換句話說,作為對於法則的顛覆。事實上,它道道地地就是對於一個法則的支持。

If there is something that we now know about the pervert, it is that what appears from the outside as satisfaction
without restraint is defence, is well and truly the bringing into play, into action of a law in so far as it restrains, it suspends, it stops, precisely on the path of this jouissance.

假如有某件東西,我們現在知道,關於這個變態狂患者,那就是:從外在出現作為沒有受到約束的滿足,其實是一種防衛。它道道地地就是運作一個法則,進入行動。這樣,它才能約束,才能懸置,才能阻止,確實就是這個生命歡爽的追尋途徑。

The will to jouissance in the pervert as in everyone else, is a will which fails, which encounters its own limit, its own restraint, in the very exercise as such of the perverse desire.

變態狂患者身上顯現的這個追尋生命歡爽的意志,如同在每一位其他人的身上,是一個註定失敗的意志。因為它遭遇到它自己的限制,它自己的約束,當著是變態狂患者的欲望的運用到本身。

In a word, the pervert does not know, as was very well emphasized by one of the people who spoke today at my request, he does not know at the service of what jouissance his activity is exercised.

總而言之,變態狂患者並不知道,如同今天應我的邀請的人們,其中一位很清楚地強調。變態狂患者並不知道,他的行動所運作的生命的歡爽,提供給他怎樣的服務。

It is not in any case at the service of his own.

無論如何,這不是用來替他自己服務。

It is this which allows there to be situated what is involved at the level of the neurotic.

這個狀況容許所被牽涉到神經質患者的層次,被定位出來。

The neurotic is characterised by the following – and this is why he was the place of passage, the path to lead us to this discovery, which is a decisive path in morality – that the true nature of desire in so far as this decisive path is not taken except from the moment that here (21) attention has been focussed on what I am expressly in the process of articulating before you just now, the neurotic was this exemplary path in the sense that he shows us, for his part, that it is by way of the search for, the establishment of the law itself that he needs to pass to give its status to his desire, to sustain his desire.

神經質患者的特徵如下:這就是為什麼他是過程的位置,引導我們通往這個發現的途徑。在道德方面,這是一條決定性的途徑。就欲望的性質而言,這個決定性的途徑並沒有被採取,除了從這個時刻,注意力被專注於我剛剛在你們面前清楚表達的東西。神經質患者是這個典範的途徑,因為它跟我們顯示,就他而言,憑藉著這種尋求,法則本身的建立,他需要傳遞給他的欲望的它的地位,為了維持他的欲望。

The neurotic more than anybody else highlights this exemplary fact that he can only desire in accordance with the law.

神經質患者比起任何其他的人,更加強調這個典範的事實。他只能夠依照法則來欲望。

He cannot for his part sustain, give its status to his desire except as unsatisfied for himself or as impossible.

就他而言,他不能夠維持,給予他的欲望它的地位,除了作為自己本身無法滿足,或不可能。

It remains that I am giving myself the easier task in speaking to you only of the hysteric or the obsessional, because this is to leave completely outside the field of the neurosis ;that we are still embarrassed by along the whole path we have taken, namely anxiety neurosis about which I hope this year,
as regards what we have engaged on here, to make you take the
necessary step. Let us not forget that it is from this that
Freud began and that, if death, his death, deprived us of
something, it is not to have allowed him fully the time to come back to it.

問題是,我正在給予我自己這個比較容易的工作,只跟你們談論歇斯底里患者,或是偏執狂患者。因為這是要將焦慮完全放置在神經質患者的外面。我們依舊感到尷尬,當我們沿著我們曾經採取的整個途徑,換句話說,就是神經質患者的焦慮。關於這個焦慮,今年我希望讓你們採取這個必要的步驟。讓我們不要忘記,佛洛伊德就是從這一點開始。假如死亡,他的死亡,剝奪掉我們一些東西,那就是他無法被給予充份的時間,再也無法回來談論。

We are therefore placed, however paradoxical this
may appear to you as regards the subject of anxiety, we are
placed, we are brought back to this crucial plane, to this
crucial point that I will call the myth of the moral law, namely
that any healthy position of the moral law is supposed to be
sought in the sense of an autonomy’ of the subject.

關於焦慮的生命的主體,這件事無論顯得多麼矛盾,因此我們被放置於,我們被帶回到這個重要的層次,到這個重要關鍵,我稱之為道德法則的神話。換句話說,道德法則的任何健康的位置,應該被尋求,以生命主體的自主權的意義。

The very accent of this research, the always greater emphasizing in the course of the history of these ethical theories, of this notion of autonomy sufficiently shows what is involved, namely a defence, that what it is a matter of swallowing, is this first and obvious truth that the moral law is heteronomous;

這個研究的重點,在這些倫理理論的歷史過程,越來越強調自主權這個觀念,充份顯示,所牽涉到的內容是一種防衛。道德法則是他律,這個顯而易見最初的真理,是否被接受,言人人殊。

this is why I insist on the fact that it proceeds from what I am calling the real in so far as it intervenes, as it intervenes when it intervenes essentially, as Freud tells us, by eliding the subject, by determining by its very intervention what is called repression and which only takes on its full meaning if we start from this synchronic function, in so far as I articulated it before you by pointing out to you, in a first approximation, what effacing traces means.

這就是為什麼我堅持這個事實,道德律從我所謂的真實界出發。當它介入,當它基本上是一種介入,如佛洛伊德告訴我們,以忽略生命主體的立場,以根據自己的介入,判定所謂的壓抑。假如我們從這個語言同時性的功用開始,它才會形成它的充份的意義。我在你們面前表達它,我跟你們指出,在最初的接觸時,抹除痕跡是什麼意思。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

Anxiety 84 Jacques Lacan

December 21, 2010

Anxiety 84

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK X
雅克、拉康研討會第十冊

ANXIETY 論焦慮

1962 – 1963

Seminar 12: Wednesday 27 February 1963

The fact is that effectively these remarks about anxiety can no longer be kept at a distance from a more precise approach to what has been present in an always more insistent fashion for some time in my discourse, namely the problem of the desire of the analyst.

事實上,這些有關焦慮的談論,不再能被保持距離,在我的精神分析的真理論述,有段時間,持續不斷地呈現的更加精確地深入接近。換句話說,精神分析師的欲望。

For when all is said and done, this at least cannot fail to
escape the hardest-hearing ears: the fact is that in the
difficulty of the approach of these authors to
counter-transference, it is the problem of the desire of the
analyst which creates the obstacle, which creates the obstacle
because in short taken generally, namely not elaborated as we have done it here, every intervention of this order, however
surprising this may appear after sixty years of analytic
development, seems to share a fundamental imprudence.

當一切都說都做了,即使是最充耳不聞的耳朵都難免會聽聞到。事實上,這些作者接近反移情的問題會遭遇的困難。精神分析師的欲望的問題,引起這個阻礙。它會引起阻礙,是因為一般說起來,它並沒有被構想,如我們在此所做到,這個秩序的每道精神分析師的介入,似乎共同的基本現象就是:輕舉妄動,儘關這六十年來精神分析學的發展,看起來是多麼的令人驚奇。

The people involved, whether we are dealing with Szasz, or with Barbara Low herself, whether we are dealing still more with Margaret Little – and I will say later how things have been advanced in this respect in the extraordinary confidences in which Lucia Tower, the most recent author, has spoken about very profoundly on this subject, more specifically has made a very profound avowal of her experience – none of these authors can avoid putting things on the plane of desire.

牽涉到的人,無論我們處理的是薩茲或是巴巴拉、羅,無論我們正在處理的是小瑪格麗特,我以後都會說,在這一方面,事情是如何被提出,在這個特別的信任當中。路西亞、塔武爾,這位最近的作者,曾經充滿信心深刻地談論到這個議題。她對於她的精神分析經驗,曾經很明確地做了一個非常深刻的宣稱:沒有一位作者能夠逃避以欲望的層面討論事情。

The term counter-transference, as it is envisaged, namely, in general, broadly speaking the participation of the analyst, but let us not forget that more essential than the engagement of the analyst, in connection with which you see there being produced in the texts the most extreme vacillations from their hundred-percent responsibility to staying completely out of it (19) I believe that in this respect the final article, the one which you unfortunately know only under an indicative form, the one by Lucia Tower, highlights well, not for the first time, but for the first time in an articulated manner something that is much more suggestive in this order, namely that which in the analytic relationship can occur on the side of the analyst in terms of what she calls a small change for him, the analyst -this reciprocity of action is here something which I am not saying at all is the essential term, let us say that the simple evocation of it is well designed to reestablish the question at the level at which it should be posed.

反移情,如大家所構想的,換句話說,廣義地說,是指精神分析師的參與。但是讓我們不要忘記,比精神分析師的參與更加基本的東西。關於這一點,你們看到這個最極端的搖擺在文本裏被產生,從他們百分之百地負責,到完全置身事外。我相信,在這一方面,這篇最後的文章,你們不幸地只能透過指示的形式瞭解,那就是路西亞、塔武爾的文章。它強調得很好,並不是第一次,而是第一次以一個被表達的方式,強調某件更加具有建議性的東西,在這個層次上。換句話說,在精神分析師的關係,可能會發生在精神分析師的這一邊,她所謂的小小的轉變,對於精神分析師。這種行動的相互作用,在此具有某件我根本不能說出的是基本的術語。容我們這樣說,簡單地引用到它,是精心設計要重新建立這個問題,以他應個被提出的層次。

It is not a matter in effect of definition, even of an exact definition of counter-transference, which could be given very simply, which is simply nothing other than the following which has only one drawback as a definition, which is that it abandons completely the question which is posed about its import, namely that counter-transference is everything that the psychoanalyst represses of what he receives as signifier in the analysis.

事實上,這並不是定義的問題,甚至也不是反移情的一個明確的定義。那並不難於給予,簡單來說,那就是以下僅有一個缺點的定義。它完全放棄被提出作為它的意義的這個問題。換句話說,反移情是精神分析師所壓抑的一切,他在精神分析學所接受作為意符的壓抑的一切。

It is nothing else and this is why this question of
counter-transference is really not the question. It is from the state of confusion that it is brought to us in that it takes on its signification.

那不是別的,這就是為什麼反移情的這個問題,並不真的是問題。它從混淆的狀態,被帶到我們這裏,因為它具有它的意義。

This signification alone is the one from which no author can escape precisely in the measure that he tackles it and in the measure that this is what interests him, it is the desire of the analyst.

這個意義本身就是這個作者確實能夠逃避的意義。他克服這個意義,因為這是他感到興趣的東西,那就是精神分析師的欲望。

If this question is not simply not resolved, but finally has not even begun to be resolved, it is simply because there is not in analytic theory up to the present, I mean up to this seminar precisely, any exact positioning of what desire is.
It is no doubt because to do it is not a small undertaking.
Moreover you can see that I never claimed to do it in one step.
For example: the fashion in which I introduced it of
distinguishing, of teaching you to situate desire as distinct
compared to demand. And specifically at the beginning of this
year I introduced something new, suggesting it to you first to see your response or your reactions, as they say, which were not lacking, namely the identity, as I put it, of desire and the law.

這個問題不僅無法被解決,最後甚至還沒有開始要被解決。迄今的精神分析學到理論,我的意思是,確實直到目前這個講座,精神分析師的欲望是什麼這個問題,並沒有明確地被提出。無可置疑的,提出這個問題可是茲事體大。而且,你們能夠看出,我從來沒有宣稱,我要一步登天地解決。例如,我介紹它的方式,用以區別,教導你們定位這個欲望,顯然不同於「需求」。今年一開始很明確地,我介紹它當著是某件新穎的東西,跟你們建議,首先是要看出你們的反應,或是你們的回應,如人們所說。這些反應或回應,並不欠缺對於欲望及法則的認同,我不妨這樣說。

It is rather curious that something so obvious – because it is an obvious fact inscribed in the first steps of analytic doctrine itself – that something so evident can only be introduced or (20) reintroduced if you wish with such precautions.

耐人尋味的是,某件事情是如此顯而易見。有一個顯而易見的事實被銘記在精神分析學信條的本身。某件事情上如此的顯而易見,它只能被介紹,或重新被介紹,假如你們希望帶著這樣的警戒。

This is why I come back today to this plane to show certain
aspects, indeed implications of it. Desire then is the law.

It is not only the fact that in analytic doctrine, with the Oedipus complex as its central corpus, it is clear that what constitutes the substance of the law is the desire for the mother, that inversely what normatives desire itself, what situates it as desire, is what is called the law of the prohibition of incest.

這就是為什麼,我今天回到這個層次,表現某些面向,確實是它的指示面向。欲望就是法則。不僅在精神分析學的信條裏,以伊底普斯作為它的中心思維。顯而易見的,法則的本質就是對於母親的欲望。反過來說,使欲望本身被命名化的東西,使它被定位為欲望的東西,就是所謂的亂倫的禁忌的法則。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw