Anxiety 98 Jacques Lacan

Anxiety 98

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK X
雅克、拉康研討會第十冊

ANXIETY 論焦慮

1962 – 1963
Seminar 14: Wednesday 13 March 1963

There you are! This then to situate, to pay homage to those who are willing to take the trouble to see by their presence what is taught here, not alone to pay tribute to them, but to thank them for taking this trouble.

就是這樣!我說這些是為了定位,為了對那些人表示致敬。他們願意耗費時間出席,看看這裏教些什麼。我不單是要跟他們致敬,而且要感謝他們,撥冗前來。

On this, for my own part, I am going – because moreover I have
sometimes to deal with listeners who only come here in an
intermittent fashion – to attempt to make myself for a moment the professor of my own teaching and since the last time I brought you the elements that I believe are sufficiently massive, to recall the major point of what I contributed the last time.

對於這一點,就我而言,(而且,我有時候必須要跟這些聽眾打交道,他們只是斷斷續續地前來,)我企圖想要讓我自己充當我自己教學的教授。自從上一次,我帶給你們這些因素,我想信是份量充份的因素,為了要提醒我上一次介紹的重點。

Starting then from the distinction between anxiety and fear, I tried as I reminded you just now, at least as a first step to upset the opposition at which there came to a stop the last
development of the distinction between them which is accepted by everyone today.

從區別焦慮跟恐懼開始,我剛才提醒過你們,我設法至少讓它成為第一步,顛覆這種對立。今天大家所接受的焦慮與恐懼的區別,不要讓它一直發展下去。

It is certainly not in the direction of a transition from one to the other that the movement goes. If traces of it remain in Freud, that can only be because of the error of attributing to him the idea of this reduction of one to the other, an error
founded on what I reminded you there was in him precisely as a beginning of what in reality is this reversal of positions, in this sense that if he says precisely, despite the fact that at one or other detour of his sentences the term objektlos turns up, he says that anxiety is “Angst vor Etwas”, an anxiety about something, it is certainly not to reduce it to being another form of fear, because what he underlines, is the essential distinction between the provenance of what provokes the one and the other.

這個確實不是這個運動進行的方向,從焦慮到恐懼的轉移。它的痕跡始終留在佛洛伊德那裏,我們將焦慮被化簡成為恐懼的觀念,歸功於佛洛伊德的發現是一種錯誤。這個錯誤的基礎在於我跟你們提醒的,在佛洛伊德身上,它確實只是一種開始,實際上,就是這些立場的倒轉。即使他確實地說,儘管這個事實,在他的句子的某種拐彎抹角,「客體」這個術語出現,他說:對於某件東西的焦慮。我們確實不應該將它化簡成為另外一種的恐懼。他所強調的,就是這個基本的區別,引起焦慮跟恐懼的起源處的區別。

Therefore it is indeed on the side of the refusal of any emphasis that tends to isolate fear from the entgegenstehen, from what poses itself in front, from fear as response, entgegen precisely, that what I said in passing about fear has to be retained.

因此,我就確實應該拒絕這種強調,去分開恐懼跟阻礙,或是分開外表呈現的東西,分開恐懼作為一種反應,而確實應該是反方向。也就是我順便提到的,關於恐懼必須被保留。

(5) On the contrary, it is indeed to recall at first that in
anxiety, the subject is, I would say held, concerned, involved in the innermost part of himself, that simply on the
phenomenological plane we see already the beginnings of what I tried to articulate further in a more precise fashion. I
recalled in this connection the close relationship between
anxiety and the whole apparatus of what are called “defences”.

相反的,首先我確實是要提醒,在焦慮當中,生命的主體牽掛、關心、牽涉到的,是他自己最內在的部份。僅就現象學的層次來說,我們看到我以更加精確的方式,更深一層要探討的東西,已經開始。關於這一點,我提醒到焦慮跟所謂的「防衛」的整個的機制,有密切的關聯。

And on this path I highlighted again, not without having already articulated, prepared it in all sorts of ways, that it is indeed from the side of the real, as a first approximation, that we have to seek anxiety as that which does not deceive.

在這條探討的途徑,我再一次地強調,不是沒有表達過,我曾經以各種方式準備。確實是從真實界的這一邊,作為第一次的靠近,我們必須尋求焦慮,作為不會是欺騙的東西。

This is not to say that the real exhausts the notion of what
anxiety aims at. What anxiety aims at in the real, that with
respect to which it presents itself as a signal, is that whose
position I tried to show you in the table called, as I might say, that of the signifying division of the subject in which the X of a primitive namely his becoming as subject, this relationship of 0 over S, according to the figure of a
division, of a subject s with respect to the 0 of the Other, in so far as it is along this path of the Other that the subject has to realise himself.

這並不是要說,真實界就涵蓋一切焦慮所要到達的目標。在真實界,焦慮所要到達的目標,關於這個目標,它呈現自己當著是一種訊息。它的立場,我設法跟你們顯示,在這個表格上。我不妨說,這是生命主體的意符化區分的表格。在這個表格裏,一個原始的的這未知符號,換句話說,他逐漸成為生命的主體,這個大它者位於生命主體的上方的關係,依照一個區分的圖形,一個生命的主體跟大它者的這個O的圖形。生命的主體要實現他自己,必須沿著這個大它者的途徑。

It is this subject – I left it undetermined for you as regards
subject moves towards his becoming (avenement), its denomination in the first terms of these columns of division
whose other terms are found posited according to the forms which I already commented on – that I inscribe here as (^).

這個生命的主體,我將它留下來讓你們去決定,因為生命的主體朝著他的生成移動,它的命名,在這些區分的前幾欄。其他的術語被找到,依照我已經評論的那些形式。我在這裏將它們銘記為(^)的符號。

The end of my discourse, I think, sufficiently allowed you to recognise how at this mythical level, S, prior to any coming into play of the operation, the subject could be denominated, in so far as this term has a sense and precisely for reasons to which we will return, that one cannot in any way isolate it as subject; and mythically we will call it today the subject of jouissance.

我的真理論述的目的,我認為,我已經充份地讓你們體認出,在這個神秘的層次,在進入這個運作之前,生命的主體是如何能夠被命名。這個術語有一個意義,確實是因為這個意義,我們將會回頭談論它。無論如何,我們無法將它孤立出來當著是生命的主體。賣弄玄虛地,我們今天姑且稱呼它為「歡爽的生命的主體」。

For, as you know – I wrote it the last time, I believe – the
three stages to which they correspond the three moments of this operation are jouissance, anxiety and desire respectively. It is into these stages that I am going to advance today to show not the mediating, but the median, function of anxiety between jouissance and desire.

眾所周知,我上一次寫下它,我相信這三個階段,它們對應這個運作的三個時刻;分別是歡爽、焦慮、與欲望。我今天探討這三個階段,不是要作為進入到它們的媒介,而是作為介於歡爽跟欲望之間的焦慮的功用。

How could we comment again on this important moment of our
presentation, except by saying the following – the different
terms of which I would ask you to take in the fullest sense that can be given them – that jouissance would not know the Other, 0, except by this remainder o, which henceforth, in so far as I told you that there is no way of operating with this remainder, and (6) therefore that what comes at the lower stage, is the advent, at the end of the operation, of the barred subject, the subject qua implicated in the phantasy, in so far then as it is one of terms which constitute the support of desire.

我們如何能夠再一次評論我們呈現的這個重要的時刻?我們所能說的僅是如下:(我要求你們以完整的意義,來理解這些不同的術語,)歡爽並不認識大它者,除了透過這個剩餘的客體。因此,我告訴你們,我們沒有辦法使用這個剩餘的客體來運作。因此在較低的階段所出現的,就是這個被禁制度生命主體的來臨,在運作結束的時候。這個生命主體的本身被牽涉到幻見裏。這是欲望的支持被形成的術語之一。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

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