Unconscious 05 Jacques Lacan

Unconscious 05
Jacques Lacan

雅克 拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK V
拉康講座:第五冊

The Formations of the Unconscious
無意識界的形成
1957 – 1958

Seminar 1; Wednesday 6 November 1957

You should notice that in this schema you can see in a very (18) concrete way both what links and what distinguishes the truth that is perfectly and immediately accessible, from linguistic experience; this is something that the Freudian
experience of analysis rejoins with the distinction that exists originally between this “I” which is nothing other than the place of the one who speaks in the chain of discourse, and which does not even need to be designated by an “I”, and on the other hand the message, that is to say the thing that absolutely requires a
minimum of the apparatus of this schema to exist.

你們應該注意到,在這個基模,你們能夠很具體地看到,是什麽東西連接,並且區別完美而立刻可接近的真理,跟語言學的經驗,彼此之間的不同。這是佛洛伊德學派的精神分析經驗,重新加入的某件東西,區別原先存在於這個「我」,道道地地就是另一個言談者的位置,在真理論述的意符鎖鏈裏。它甚至不需要由一個「我」來指明。在另一方面,這個訊息,換句話說,它絕對需要至少要有這個基模的工具,才能存在。

It is absolutely impossible to produce a message or any word whatsoever in a sort of concentric, radiating fashion coming from the existence of some subject or other, if there is not all this complexity.

我們絕對不可能用同心圓的擴散方式,產生一個訊息或任何字詞。這個方式來自某一個生命主體的存在,即使並不都是那麽複雜。

No word is possible for the very good reason that the word presupposes precisely the existence of a signifying chain, which is something whose origins are far from simple to discover – we spent a year trying to arrive at it – and which
presupposes the existence of a network of uses, in other words of the usage of a tongue; and which presupposes besides all this mechanism which ensures that whatever you say, whether you think about it or not, whatever you formulate, once you’ve got caught in the wheel of this word-mill, your discourse always says more
than you are saying, and very obviously basing itself, by the simple fact that it is speech, on the existence somewhere of this term of reference that is the dimension of truth; of truth in so (19) far as it is distinct from reality and something that brings
into play the possible emergence of new meanings being introduced into the world, which the truth (realité) literally introduces into it – not the meanings that are there, but rather the meanings that it makes emerge.

沒有字詞是可能的,充分的理由是,字詞預先假定確實就是一個意符鎖鏈的存在。這個意符鎖鏈的起源,很難去考究,雖然我們花費一年時間去探索。它預先假定一個用法網路的存在,換句話說,一個語言的用法網路。它預先假定,除了所有保證你說話內容的這些機械學,是否你思考到它,或你怎麽說明它,一但你被陷入字詞磨坊的轉輪中,你的真理論述總是言過其實,顯而易見地將自己的基礎,建立於言詞之上,於這個術語指稱的存在的地方,那就是真理的向度。這個真理的向度,截然不同於現實界,不同於某件運作新的意義的可能出現,被介紹到這個世界。真理實質上介紹這個東西進入這個世界,不是存在那裏的意義,而是它使之出現的意義。

Here you have, radiating out from the message on the one hand and from the “I” on the other hand, the meaning of these little wingtips that you see here; two diverging directions, one that goes from the “I” to the metonymical object and towards the
Other, to which corresponds in a symmetrical fashion the message by way of the return of the discourse, the direction of the message towards the metonymical object and towards the Other; all of this is provisional and I would ask you to take it down.

在此你所擁有的是,一方面,從這個訊息擴散出,另一方面,從這個「我」擴散出,你們在此所看的這些小小翅膀尖端的意義,兩個分叉的方向。一個方向從這個「我」開始,到換喻的客體,然後朝向大它者。訊息以一個均稱的方式,藉由真理論述的回轉,對應這個大它者。另一個方向,從訊息開始,朝向換喻的客體,朝向大它者。所有這些都是暫時性的,我要求你們記錄下來。

On the schema you will see that there is something which will be of great use to us and which might seem to you to require no explanation, the line that goes from “I” to the Other and the line that goes from “I” to the metonymical object, and you will see to what these two other extremely interesting lines correspond which go from the message to the code on the one hand, because in fact this return line does exist; if it did not exist, as the schema itself indicates, there would not be the slightest hope for the creation of meaning. It is precisely in the interplay between the message and the code, and also in the return of the code to the message, that the essential dimension into which the witticism immediately introduces us will have its effect. It is here I think we will remain for a certain number (20) of lectures in order to see all the extraordinarily suggestive and instructive things that can take place here.

在這個基模,你們看到,有某件東西對於我們非常有用,對於這個東西,你們似乎要求解釋。這條線從這個「我」,擴散到大它者,這條線從這個「我」,擴散1到換喻的客體。你們看得出來,這兩個其他極端有趣的線跟什麽對應。一方面,它們從訊息到法則,因為事實上,這個回轉線確實存在。假如它並不存在,如這個基模本身所指示,對於意義的創造,將不會有絲毫的希望。確實就是在訊息與法則之間的互相運作,而且在法則回轉到訊息,這個機智語當下所介紹給我們的重要的向度,才具有它的價值。在這一點,我想我們還需要好幾個講座,才能看出所有的具有特別意涵及啟發性的事情,會在這裏發生。

In addition this will give us a further opportunity to grasp the relationship of dependence in which the metonymical object is, this famous object that never is, that object which is always situated elsewhere, that is always something else, and which we began to concern ourselves with last year.

除外,這將給我們更進一步的機會,來理解換喻的客體存在所依靠的關係。這個從未存在的客體,這個總是位在別處,總是別的東西的客體,去年我們開始關心的這個客體。

Now let us approach this Witz. What does this Witz mean? It has been translated by le trait d’esprit and also by le mot d’esprit.

現在讓我們來探討這個機智語。這個機智語是什麽意思呢?有人給它翻譯成「詼諧」,也有人翻譯成「幽默」。

I will not go into the reasons why I prefer le trait d’esprit.

我就不說明為什麽我比較喜歡「詼諧」一詞。

The Witz can also mean l’esprit. We must admit that l’esprit immediately introduces something that appears to be extremely ambiguous because in fact a witticism is something that is occasionally looked down on: it is frivolity, lack of seriousness, fantasy, capriciousness. But esprit by itself brings us up short, and we think twice before thinking of esprit in the same way. Nevertheless the spirit in the sense of un
homme spirituel has not got an excessively good reputation.

機智語有時也意味著雙關語。我們必承認,雙關語立即介紹某件似乎是極端曖昧的關係,因為事實上,機智語是某件偶爾受到輕視的東西。它輕浮,缺乏莊重,充滿幻想,飄浮不定。但是敏銳思維本身讓我們刮目相看,我們若再三考慮,就會發現敏銳思維不容小覷。可是,具有「男人氣概」的「精神」一詞的意義,卻還沒有得到過高的推崇。

However it is around this that the centre of gravity of the notion of 1’esprit is to be found and it is better to allow it to keep all its ambiguities. This includes the spirit in the widest (21) sense, the spirit that all too often has the stamp of very shoddy goods, the spirit of spiritualism.

可是,就是在這附近,時代風潮的觀念的引力核心能夠被找到,而且它容許自己表現所有的曖昧性。這包含廣義的精神,而精神往往具有粗製濫造的貨品的標記,精神主義的精神。

We can centre the notion of spirit on the witticism, that is to say on that which appears to be most contingent, most out of date, most open to criticism. It is really part of the genius of psychoanalysis to do something like this, and that is why we
should not be surprised that it is in fact the only point in the work of Freud where he mentions the Spirit, this time ornamented with a capital letter. Nevertheless there still remains this relationship between the two poles of the term spirit, and it has
always given rise to disputes about classification.

我們可以將精神的觀念集中在機智語上面。換句話說,集中在似乎是最迫切,最不合時宜,最飽受批評的事情上。這確實是精神分析學的天才,在從事某件諸如其類的事。這就是為什麽我們不應該大驚小怪,當事實上,在佛洛伊德的著作中,這是唯一我們提到「精神」的地方,此次我們用大寫字母來強調。它總是會產生有關分類的爭議。

It really would be fun to evoke for you the English tradition in which the term used is wit, which is still more ambiguous than Witz and even than 1’esprit in French – the discussions on the true, the genuine spirit, the good spirit to call him by his name; and then of the bad spirit, the one with which charlatans amuse people. How can we distinguish all of this? The only thing that we must really take as a reference-point is the difficulty that all the critics have found themselves in, and this continues
after the 18th century with Addison, Pope, etc., up to the (22) beginning of the 19th century. In the English Romantic school the question of wit could not but be on the agenda and in a place of first importance, and in this respect the writings of Hazlitt are also very significant, and someone else that we will have to talk about, namely Coleridge, is the one who has gone farthest along this path.

跟你們引述英國的傳統,真是一件饒有趣味的事。在英國傳統裏,這個術語被使用當著是「捷思」,比「機智語」,甚至比法文的「時代風潮」,語義還要更曖昧。對於真正的,真實的精神,善良的精神的討論,而直呼其名,然後再輪到不好的精神,江湖郎中的招搖撞騙,直呼其名。我們要如何區別這一切?唯一我們真正必須採取,作為指稱點的是這個困難,所有的批評者都曾經發現,他們自己陷在這個困難當中。這個困難繼續下來,在十八世紀,阿迪舜、波普,等詼諧名家之後,一直到十九世紀。在英國浪漫主義時期,機智語的問題不得不浮上枱面,地位是舉足輕重。在這一方面,哈茲立特的作品也是非常重要,還有一位我們必須談論到的人是柯勒瑞吉,他在這條途徑,可說是登峰造極。

雄伯譯
springherohsiung@gmail.com

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