Unconscious 04 Jacques Lacan

Unconscious 04
Jacques Lacan

雅克 拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK V
拉康講座:第五冊

The Formations of the Unconscious
無意識界的形成
1957 – 1958

Seminar 1; Wednesday 6 November 1957

You will recognize my first line here, and the other hooked on to it after having
twice crossed over it. I would like to point out however that you cannot confuse what the two lines represent here, namely the signifier and the signified, with what they represent in this case which is slightly different, and you will see why.

你們會認出我在此的第一行,及附屬在它身上的另外一行,在兩次越過它之後。可是,我想要指出的是,你們不可能誤解這兩行在此所代表的,換句話說,意符與意旨,跟它們在這個情況所代表。兩者之間有些微的不同,你們將會看出為什麽?

In fact we are situating ourselves entirely on the plane of the (14) signifier. The effects on the signified are elsewhere, they are not directly represented on this schema. It is a matter of two states, of two functions of a signifying sequence that we can apprehend.

事實上,我們將自己完全定位在意符的層次。意符對於意旨的影響在於別的地方。在這個基模,它們並沒有直接被代表。問題是,我們必須要理解一個意符的系列有兩種狀態,兩個功用。

In the first moment of this first line, we have the signifying chain in so far as it remains entirely permeable to the properly signifying effects of metaphor and metonymy, and this implies the possible actualization of signifying effects at every level, in particular down to the phonematic level, to the level of the phonological element of what grounds the pun, the play on words, in short that which in the signifier is that something with which we analysts must continually operate, because I think that except for those of you who arrive here for the first time, you should be able to remember how all this happens in the play on words and in puns. Moreover it is precisely the way in which today we are going to begin our entry into the subject of the unconscious, by the witticism and the Witz.

在第一行的第一個時刻,我們擁有意符的鎖鏈,當它始終保持在比喻與換喻的合理意符化的影響,可以參透的地方。這意味著,意符化影響可能在每一個層次實現,特別是化簡到語音的層次,到同音異義作為雙關語的層次,文字的遊戲。總之,意符的實質是我們精神分析師必須不斷地用以運作的東西,因為我認為,除了是第一次出席的人外,你們應該能夠記得,文字及雙關語的遊戲,這一切是如何發生。而且,確實就是這個方式,今天我們將要開始我們的進入無意識界的生命主體,憑藉著機智語跟反諷語。

The other line is that of rational discourse into which are already integrated a certain number of reference points, of things that are fixed, those things which as it happens cannot be grasped except at the level of what is called the usages of the
signifier, that is to say that which concretely in the use of discourse constitutes the fixed points which, as you know, are far from corresponding in a univocal way to a thing. There is (15) not a single semanteme that corresponds to a particular thing or to things which for the most part are very different.

另外一行是理性的真理論述的一行,某些的指稱點已經被合併在裏面,那些固定的事情,那些恰巧是無法理解的事情,在所謂意符的用途的層次。換句話說,在真理論述的用途中,具體組成固定的點。你們知道,這些固定的點根本就沒有明確地對應某件東西。沒有一個單一的語義對應特別的東西。這些特別的東西,大部分是不同的。

We pause here at the level of the semanteme, that is to say at what is fixed and defined by a use.

我們暫停在語義的層次 換句話說,暫停在語詞約定成俗的地方。

This other line then is that of current, everyday discourse, as it is admitted into the code of the discourse, of what I would call the discourse of reality which is common to us all. It is also the level at which the fewest creations of meaning are produced, because the meaning is, in a way, already given, and because most of the time this discourse only consists in a rehashing of what are called received ideas. It is at the level of this discourse that there is produced the famous empty speech from which a number of my remarks on the field (parente) of language began.

另外一行因此是流動的,日常的真理論述的一行,因為它被容許進入真理論述的法則,我所謂現實的真理論述的法則,這是我們耳熟能詳的。也就是在這個層次,最罕見的意義的創造被產生,因為在某方面,意義已經被給予,因為大部分的時間,這個真理論述的組成,只是所謂既有觀念的重新組合。在這個真理論述的層次,這個著名的空洞的言語被產生。許多我對於語言領域的談話,就從那裏開始。

You can see clearly then that this is the concrete discourse of the individual subject, of the person who speaks and who makes himself understood. It is the discourse that can be recorded on a record. The other is what all of that includes as a
possibility of decomposition, of reinterpretation, of resonance, of metaphorical or metonymical effects. One goes in the opposite direction to the other for the simple reason precisely that they slide over one another. But they do intersect with one another, and they intersect at two points that are perfectly recognizable.

你們能夠清楚看出,這就是個別生命主體的具體的真理論述。這個人言談,這個人使他自己被人瞭解。這個真理論述能夠被記錄在記錄中。另外一行是被包含作為,比喻或換喻影響,可以被分解,重新解釋,迴響的可能性。我們朝著相反方向到另外一邊,理由很簡單,確實是因為它們互相滑動。但是它們也互相交會,它們在完全可以體認出來的兩個點互相交會。

(16) If we begin from the discourse, the first point at which the discourse meets the other chain which we shall call the properly signifying chain, is from the point of view of the signifier, what I have just explained to you, namely the collection of usages, in other words what we shall call the code; and this code must be somewhere if discourse is to be heard. This code is obviously in this capital 0 which is here, namely in the Other in so far as it is the companion of language. It is absolutely
necessary that this Other should exist, and I would ask you to note in passing that there is absolutely no need to call it by the imbecilic and delusional name of “collective consciousness”.

假如我們從這個真理論述開始,真理論述跟另一個意附鎖鏈交會的第一點,我們將稱之為適當的意符鎖鏈。從意符的觀點而言,我剛剛跟你所解釋的,換句話說,各種用途的累積,也就是我們所謂的法則。這個法則必須是在別的地方,假如真理論述想要被人理解的話。顯而易見的,這個法則是在以大寫字母O代表的大它者那裏,因為它是語言的同伴。大它者的存在,是絕對必要的。我將要求你們偶爾注意一下,我們絕對沒有這個必要將它稱之為「集體意識」,那個名字真是既白癡,又純屬幻想。

An Other is an Other, and a single one is sufficient for a tongue to be alive. And it is all the more sufficient that there should be just one, that this other can all by itself also be the first moment. If there is one who remains and who can speak his tongue
to himself, this is sufficient and not only an Other, but even two others, in any case someone who understands him. One can continue to produce witticisms in a tongue, even though one is the only person who knows it.

一個大它者就是單一的大它者,足夠讓一種語言自成一家靈活之言。更加足夠的是,它僅是一家之言,其外語言本身也都是自己的第一時刻。假如有一個語言始終存在,它能夠自言自語,這樣也足夠讓它是一個大它者,而且在其他兩個大它者,無論如何,對於瞭解他的人而言。我們能夠繼續產生一個語言的機智語,即使我們是唯一瞭解這個語言的人。

This then is the first encounter at the level of what we have called the code. In the other, the second encounter which completes the loop, which properly speaking constitutes the meaning, constitutes it in terms of the code which it (17) encountered first, is the culminating point. You see two arrows which end here, and today I will spare myself the trouble of explaining the meaning of the second arrow that ends here at this point gamma; it is the result of the conjunction of the
discourse with the signifier as a creative support of meaning – it is the message.

這因此是第一個遭遇,在我們所謂的法典的層次。對於大它者,第二個遭遇會完成這個圈套。適當地說,這個圈套組成意義,用法則的名義組成它,它第一次遭遇的時刻是最高潮的時刻。你們看到,有兩個箭頭在這裏結束。今天我要節省一些麻煩,解釋第二個箭頭在這個第三點結束的意義。那是由於真理論述跟意符結合的結果,作為意義的創造性的支援,那就是訊息。

It is here that meaning is born; the truth that is to be announced, if there is any truth, is there in the message. Most of the time there is no truth enunciated, for the simple reason that the discourse in no way passes through the signifying chain, that it is the pure and simple droning of mere repetitiveness, of the word-mill (moulin k paroles), and that it passes through here in a sort of short-circuit between B and B’ , and that the discourse says absolutely nothing except to indicate to you that
I am a speaking animal. It is the commonplace discourse of speech that says nothing, but thanks to it you reassure yourself that you are not face to face simply with what man is in hisnatural state, namely a savage beast.

就在這裏,意義被產生,假如在訊息那裏,有所謂真理的話,這就是我們即將宣佈的真理。大部分時刻,並沒有真理被宣佈,理由很簡單,真理論述根本就沒有通過意符的鎖鏈。它僅是類比文字的重複的純粹喋喋不休,它通過這裏時,僅是以B點跟B2點之間,短路迴圈的方式。真理論述絕對沒有說出任何事情,除了就是跟你們指示:「我是一個會說話的動物」。這種共同的言說的真理論述,沒有說出任何事情。但是由於它,你們讓自己安心,你們跟人處於自然的狀態,換句話說,處於野蠻動物的狀態,你們沒有面對面正視真理實相。

These two points B and B’ being the minimal nexuses on the short-circuit of discourse are very easily recognizable. One is the object precisely in the sense of the metonymical object that I spoke to you about last year; the other is the “I” in so far as it indicates in the discourse itself the place of the one who is speaking.

B跟B’的這兩點,是真理論述的短路迴圈的最小核心,是很容易體認出來。從換喻客體的意義來說,其中一點確實是去年我跟你們提到的客體,另外一點是這個「我」,當它在真理論述中指示自己,作為言說的生命主體的地位。

雄伯譯
springherohsiung@gmail.com

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