Archive for July, 2010

The power of the impossibles 1

July 3, 2010

The power of the impossibles 1
不可能界的力量
The Other side of Psychoanalysis
精神分析学的另一面貌
By Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉岡

It does have to be said that it is unusual to die of shame.

死於羞愧是不寻常的,这件事情确实必须要说一下。

Yet it is the one sign—the one sign whose genealogy one can be certain of, namely that it is descended from a signifier. After all, any sign can fall under the suspicion of being a pure sign, that is to say, obscene, Vincennes, dare I say, a good example to make you laugh.

可是,死於羞愧是一个符号。这个符号的系谱起源,我们能够确定是有,换句话说,它的祖先起源於一个意符。畢竟,任何符号都会被怀疑是一个纯净的符号,换句话说,纯净的符号也可以招摇过市,就像是万塞纳大学那样,容我冒昧地说,
这个例子很值的我们哈哈一笑。

Dying of shame, then. Here, the degeneration of the signifier is certain—certain to be produced by the signifier’s failure, namely, being toward death, insofar as it concerns the subject—and who else could it concern? Being toward death, that is, the visiting card by which a signifier represents a subject for another signifier—you are beginning to know this off by heart, I hope.

然后,我们再谈死於羞愧。在此,意符的堕落是确定的,意符的失败确定会产生堕落,换言之,朝着死亡方向堕落,因为它跟生命的主体有关,不然,它还会跟其它哪一个人有关?朝着死亡方向堕落,换句话说,一个意符拿着拜访的介绍信,代表一个生命的主体,拜访另一个意符。我希望,你们对於这些话已经耳熟能详。

This visiting card never arrives at the right destination, the reason being that for it to bear the address of death, the card has to be torn up. “ It’s a shame,” as they say, which should produce a (h)ontology spelled properly at last.

这张拜访的介绍信,从来没有到达适当的目的地,原因是,介绍信必须要先撕开,才看得到里面的地址是死亡。「这真是一件令人羞愧的事情!」一般人都这样说,因为人作为生命的主体,在最后盖棺论定时,应该产生他的意义的本体。

In the meantime, to die of shame is the only affect of death that deserves—deserves what?—that deserves to die.

同时,死於羞愧是死亡的情怀理应得到,理应得到什麽?理应得到死亡。

People have been quiet about this for a long time. Speaking about it, in effect, is to open this redoubt, which is not the last, the only one that what can be said honestly of the honest partakes in, “honest,” which stems from the honor—that is all shame and companion—of making no mention of shame. Precisely, of the fact that it is impossible for the honest to die of shame. You know from me that this means the real.

人们对於这个问题沉默以对良久。事实上,谈到它等於是啟动双重的怀疑。对於诚实的人,我们能够诚实以告的,会牵涉到起源於荣誉感的「诚实」的问题。不敢诚实面对是一种羞愧,外加连羞愧都不敢提的羞愧,準确地说,不可能界让诚实的人死於羞愧。你们从我这里学习到,这个不可能界意味着真实界。

“ He doesn’t deserve to die for that!” People say about anything and everything, thus bringing everything down to being futile. Said as it is said, with that end in mind, it elides the fact that death can be deserved.

「他不应该为了羞愧於无法到达真实界而死亡!」人们道长论短,然后将一切都归属於徒劳无功。无论你怎样盡情言说,结局都是一样,死亡是我们应得的归宿,这个事实无法逃避。

Now, it should not be a matter of eliding the impossible, as it happens, but of being its agent. To say that death is deserved—the time at least to die of shame that it’s not so, that it’s deserved.

现在,问题的关键,不是真实界能否偶尔被掌握,而是如何成为它的代理人。说死亡是每个人理应得到,至少,死於羞愧的时机,它並非是如此,这个时机是我们理应得到。

If it happens now, well then, it was the only way to deserve it. You were lucky. If it doesn’t happen, which, with respect to the preceding surprise, is bad luck, then you’re left with a life of shame by the beautiful, by virtue of the fact that it is not worth dying for.

假如死亡的时机就发生在现在,好吧,那是唯一的方法,让你理应得到死亡,你算是死得其时!假如死亡此刻並未发生,关於你先前的驚喜,你现在算是运气不好,你会拥有一大堆的羞愧的余生可以自惭,因为死於羞愧是不值得的。

Is it worth my speaking about it in this way?—when, as soon as one speaks about it, the twenty scenes I mentioned about are only asking to be taken up again in the form of buffoonery.

我以这种方式谈论死於羞愧是值得的吗?当我们一谈到这个问题,我所提到的二十个场景,都会争先恐后地要求再一次重新评估。

雄伯译
springherohsiung@gmail.com

The Impotence of truth 2

July 2, 2010

The Impotence of truth 2
真理论述的无能为力
From The Other Side of Psychoanalysis
精神分析学的另一面
By Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉岡

I made a trip to Vincennes last week—this succinctly tells the tale that I had replied to an invitation from that place. Besides, I announced this to you here last time, to set you off on the right path for a reference I began with, one that is far from innocent—this is even the reason why one must read Freud.

上个星期,我旅行到万塞纳。出发的动机单纯是,我回应当地的演讲邀请。除外,我上一次在这里跟你们宣佈,要求你们出发,从正确的途径,去追寻我开始的方向。这个方向一点儿也不是纯真无邪,这甚至就是我们必须要研读佛洛伊德的原因。

In effect, in “ Analysis Terminable and Interminable” we can read the lines concerning what an analyst is.

事实上,在他的「有限期间与无限期间的精神分析学」一文,我们能够阅读到有关精神分析师是什麽的几行描述。

It is observed there that one would be very mistaken to require of analysts a large dose of mental normality and correctness, they would become too rare, and then, it must not be forgotten that the analytic relation, “ unendlich nict zu vergessen, dass die analytische Beziehung auf Wahrheitshiebe,” is found on the love of truth, and “ d.h.auf die Anerkenung der Realitat gegrundet ist,” that is to say, on the recognition of realties.

我们观察到,假如我们要求精神分析师个个精神键全、观念正确,那是陈义过高,因为他们是凤毛麟角地难求。然后,我们一定不要忘记:精神分析的关系是被建立在对於真理的爱好上。换句话说,被建立在对於真实世界的体认上。

“ Realitdt” is a word you will recognize since it is copied from our latin. It is in competition, in the way Freud uses it, with the word “ Wirklichkeit” further, translate quite consistently, in both cases, “ reality.”

「真实世界」这个单字,你们将会认得,因为那是从拉丁文抄袭过来。佛洛伊德在使用它时,曾经将它跟另一个拉丁字「真理世界」斟酌使用。後面这个单字,有时也标示着,翻译者就此定案的前後的一贯,因为前後两个情况,都是当「真实界」在使用。

I have on this issue a little recollection of the truly frothing rage that overcame a couple, or more particularly one of them—I really do have to call him by his name, it is not an accident, it’s a certain Laplanche, who has had a certain role in the avatars of my relations with analysis—at the thought that another—whom I am also going to name, since I named the former, a certain ( Pierre) Kaufinann—had put forward the idea that it was necessary to distinguish between this Wirklichkeit and this realidtdt. The fact that he had been beaten by the other to make this remark, which was, in fact, altogether primary, had unleashed a kind of passion in the former of these two characters.

对於这个问题,我想到我曾经看过两个人对我暴跳如雷,特别是中间一位,我必须直呼其名不可,因为他的名字恰巧就是「雷公」。他曾经在我跟精神分析学的关系场域,扮演过某个角色,另外一位,我也要直称其名,既然前一位,我已经这样做了。他名叫「柯夫曼」,他提出的点子是:区别这个「真理世界」跟这个「真实世界」是有必要的。他曾经被他人要求做这个区别时,无言以对。而这个相当基本的区别的问题,曾经让这两位人物中的前一位,契而不舍地思维良久。

The pseudocontempt displayed by this fussing about is, actually, something quite interesting.

这种庸人自扰的虚假辩疑,实际上是一件很有趣的事情。

The sentence finishes thus, “ gegrinder ist und jeden Schein und Trug ausschliesst,” excludes from this analytic relationship all false appearances, all deception. A sentence like that is very rich. And immediately, in the following lines, it appears—despite the friendly little greeting that Freud gives the analyst on the way—that in sum there is no Analysieren . We are quite close here to truly having, we have all the appearances of, this function that is the analytic act. “ Das Analysieren” does not mean anything other than this term that I employed as the title of the one of my seminars. The analytic act would be the third impossible profession, in inverted commas, “ ‘unmoglichen’ Berufe.”

这个句子的结尾是:「它排除任何的虚假跟欺骗。」替这个精神分析的关系,排除所有的虚假的表象。像这样的句子,内涵是很丰富。立刻,在以下的几行,似乎,追根究底,精神分析学根本就无法存在,儘管佛洛伊德一路上热情可感地发扬。我们现在几乎就是要靠近精神分析经验的这个功用,这个功用的表癥已经显露无余。「精神分析的结构」道道地地就是我运用的术语,作为我的讲座的题目之一。这个精神分析的经验,将是第三个不可能的行业,可括弧为(成为真人)。

Freud quotes himself here, making reference to the fact that he has already mentioned—Where did he say it? My research is incomplete, perhaps it is in the letters to Fliess—the three professions in question, which in this previous passage he had called Regieren, erziechen, Jurieren, and in which he is obviously following coomon usage. Analysis is new, and Freud inserts it into this series by substitution. The three professions, if indeed they really are professions, are therefore Regieren, Erzieschen, analysieren, that is, governing, educating, and analyzing?

佛洛伊德自己也引述,也会参照他已经提过的这个事实。他在那儿说过的?我的研究还不够彻底,可能是在写给傅利斯的信件。有三个受到讨论的行业,在前面的这个段落里,他称之为「统治」、「教养」、「治疗」,这里,显而易见,他是遵照通俗的用法。精神分析学是新的行业,佛洛伊德将它替代地插入这三个行业里。这三个确实可以成为行业的话,那麽这三个行业因此就是:统治、教育、及精神分析。

You can’t miss the overlap between these three terms and what this year I am identifying as forming the radical of the four discourses.

你们一定会看的出来,这三个术语彼此有重叠,今年我将会辨认它们,当着组成四个真理论述的基本要素。

The discourses in question are nothing other than the signifying articulation, the apparatus whose presence, whose existing status alone dominates and governs anything that at any given moment is capable of emerging as speech. They are discourses without speech, which subsequently comes and lodges itself within them. This I can say to myself, concerning this intoxicating phenomenon called speaking out, that certain reference points in the discourse in which this is inserted would perhaps be of such a nature that, occasionally one does not start to speak without knowing what one is doing.

讨论中的这些行业,道道地地就是意符的表达,光是这个机制的存在,以及它存在的现况,就足以支配及统治任何在某个特定时刻,能够以言说表达的东西。它们原先是没有言说的真理论述,言说是随后才来临,並棲居在里面。因此,我能够对自己说,关於这个所谓的大声言说的令人興奮的现象,在真理论述的某些迹象会指出来,真理论述跟言说会有先后顺序的颠倒的特性,以致於有时候,我们开始言说的时候,我们才知道,我们正在做什麽。

Given a certain style of speech, in use in the month of May, the idea cannot fail to occur to me that one of the representatives of the little a , at a level that was not instituted in historical but rather in prehistoric times is, surely, the domestic animal. One can no longer employ the same letters in this case, but it is quite clear that a particular knowledge was required to domesticate what corresponds to our $ –a dog, for instance, is its barking.

假如考虑到,在五月份所使用的言说的某种风格,我一定会想到,小客体的代表之一,层次上不是开始於历史的时代,而是史前的时代,那当然是非家畜的动物莫属。在这种情形,我们就不再使用字母,但是显而易见的,要豢养跟我们的意符相一致的动物,例如,狗,我们还是需要有某些特别的知识,那就是狗的吠叫。

One cannot fail to form the idea that if an animal that barks is indeed what barking is then S1, takes on a meaning that there would be nothing abnormal in discovering at the level at which we are situating it, at the level of language. Everyone knows that the domestic animal is merely implicated in language by primitive knowledge, and that it does not have one. It is, obviously, only open to it to pick over what it has been given that comes closest to the signifier S1—that is, carrion.

我们一定会形成这样的观念,假如吠叫的狗,确实就是等於吠叫本身,那麽第一意符会形成一种我们发现的意义,是理所当然,在我们定位吠叫的层次,在语言的层次。大家都知道,家畜的动物在语言中,仅仅藉由原始的知识间接提到,它本身並没有语言的认知。显而易见的,它只是对语言开放,接收它所被给予的语言,这种语言类似第一意符,换句话说,肉块部份。

You will know this if you have had a good dog, whether a guard dog or some other kind, one you have had as a good friend. They are incapable of resisting carrion, they adore it. Look at the Bathory, a charming woman, a Hungarian, who every now and then liked to carve up her servants, which, of course, is the least of things one ccan offer oneself in a certain position. If she ever placed the said morsels a bit too close to the ground, her dogs would return them to her immediately.

假如你们曾经养过一条乖乖狗,无论是看门狗,或是某种其它种类的狗,你们就会知道,你会有一条狗当你的好朋友。它们不能够抗拒肉块当食物,它们崇拜它。瞧一瞧巴松蕊,她是一位漂亮的女人,一位匈牙利人。她有时喜欢戏弄她的僕役,当然,处於某个地位,那是轻而易举的事情。假如她将说过的食物,摆的太靠近地上,她的狗会将它们带还给她。

This is a somewhat neglected aspect of the dog. If you didn’t keep stuffing him full, at lunch or dinner, by giving him things he only likes because they come from your plate, this is what he would mainly bring you.

这是养狗相当受到忽略的一面。即使你在午餐或晚餐时,不将狗餵饱,而只给它喜欢的食物,因为这些食物是从你的菜肴里跟它分享的,那就是为什麽它会带还给你的原因。

You have to pay very close attention to the fact that at a higher level—that of an object little a, and that of another species, which we will try to define later and which will bring us back to what I have already said—speech can very easily play the role of carrion. In any case, it is no more appetizing.

你必须很仔细地注意这个事实,在较高的层次,在小客体的层次,在另外一个品种的层次,这个层次,我们以后再设法下定义,那时我们再话归本体,言说很容易扮演肉块充当食物的角色。言说充当肉块,不再有原来的滋味。

This has contributed a great deal to the fact that it has been poorly understood, what the importance of language has been. The deployment of speech, which has no other symbolic value, has been confused with what discourse is. As a result it is never just in an old way or at just any old time that speech functions as carrion.

这个现象让我们明白一件始终不容易让人了解的事实,那就是语言的重要性是什麽?言说的运用,若是没有其它的符号价值,会被人把它跟真理的论述混为一谈。结果,言说永远不再是它原来的样子,或是言说刚刚充当块肉的原来的样子。

The aim of these remarks is to get you to wonder over, and at least to ponder this question concerning the master’s discourse. How can this discourse, which is so wonderfully well understood, have maintained its name—as is proven by the fact that workers work, whether they are exploited or not?

我谈这些话的目的,是要你们对於主人的真理论述的这个问题,产生疑惑,至少也要懂得思考一下。这个家喻户晓的主人的真理论述,例如,工人就应该劳碌工作,不管有没有遭受剥削,是如何维持它实行的信誉,而不被怀疑?

雄伯译
springherohsiung@gmail.com

The Impotence of truth 8

July 1, 2010

The Impotence of truth 8
真理论述的无能为力
From The Other Side of Psychoanalysis
精神分析学的另一面
By Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉岡

What is striking, and what no one seems to see, is that from that moment on, by virtue of the fact that the clouds of impotence have been aired, the master signifier only appears even more assailable, precisely in its impossibility. Where is it? How can it be named? How can it be located?—other than through its murderous effects, of course. Denounce imperialism? But how can this little mechanism be stopped?

似乎没有人看到,耐人寻味的是,从那个时刻开始,由於真理论述无能为力进入真实界的事实已经被揭发,主人论述的意符,外表上甚至於更加飽受攻击,主要是因为它的无能为力。它在那一方面飽受攻击呢?它如何能够被命名?如何能够找到它的位置?当然不就是透过它的毁灭性的影响?难道我们要怦击帝国主义吗?但是,我们如何能够中止这个小小的机制?

Where do things stand now with the university discourse? Nowhere else can there be any possibility that things should move a bit. How can they move? I reserve the right to point this out to you later since, as you can see, I am going slowly. But I can already tell you that at the level of the university discourse the object a comes to occupy a place that is in play each time it moves, the place of more or less tolerable exploitation.

现在对於大学的真理论述,我们的立场在哪里?事情难道有任何进展的丝毫可能?它们如何能够有进展?我暂时将回答保留到后来,因为你们看得出来,我喜欢慢工出细活。但是,我已经能够告诉你们,在大学的真理论述的层次,小客体占有它的运作的位置,随着它每一次的进展,那个位置可以容忍人家的百般剥削。

The object a is what makes it possible to introduce a little bit of air into the function of surplus jouissance. You are all an object a, insofar as you are lined up there—so many miscarriages of what has been, for those who engendered you, the cause of desire. And this is where you have to get your bearings from—psychoanalysis teaches you this.

这个小客体就是为什麽「剩余欢爽」的功用可以有展现的空间。当你们在那里排排坐听讲,你们大家都是小客体。对於那些吸引你们前来听讲的人,他们是你们欲望的原因。你们听了演讲,若一时未能领悟,等於是胎儿夭折流产。这就是你们必须要维持风度的地方,精神分析经验这样教导你们。

Please don’t bore me stupid telling me that I would do well to point out to those who are agitating here and there that there is a world of difference between the miscarriage of the high bourgeoisie and that of the proletariat. After all, the miscarriage of the high bourgeoisie, as miscarriage, is not obliged constantly to carry its incubator around with it.

请不要自作聪明,告诉我说,假如我将到处跟我煽风点火的人明白指出来,情况就会改善,或告诉我说,高级布尔乔亚阶级的夭折流产,跟普罗阶级的夭折流产,有很大的不同。毕竟,高级布尔乔亚阶级的夭折流产,就流产的条件而言,並不需要随身携带早产儿保育器,以备不时之需。

The fact remains that the claim to situate oneself at a point that would all of a sudden be particularly illuminated, illuminable, and that would manage to make these relations move, must not, all the same, be elevated to the point to which things were pushed by a person—a little recollection that I give to you—who accompanied me for two or three months of what it is customary to call the folly of youth. This delightful person said to me, “ I am of pure proletarian race.”

这个事实依舊存在。当我们宣称大家到达某个境界,就会豁然开朗地顿悟啟蒙,就能够突飞猛进,这种宣称一定不要演变到因人论事的立场。我告诉你们一件发生的事,两三个月来,我习慣称之为「年轻人的愚昧」。这位乐天的人对我说:「我属於纯粹的普罗阶级。」

We are never finally done with segregation. I can tell you that it will only ever continue to increase. Nothing can function without it—what is happening here, as the a, the a in living form, miscarriage that it is, displays the fact that it is an effect of language.

对於种族的隔阂,我们从来没有澈底地消除。我能够告诉你,它只会永远地继续增加。没有一样事情的运作,不带有种族隔阂。在这里所发生的事情,作为小客体,具有生命形态的小客体,虽然夭折流产,它显示一个事实,它就是一种语言的影响。

Be that as it may, there is in every case a level at which things do not work out. It’s the level of those who have produced the effects of language, since no child is born without having to deal with this traffic by the intermediary of his beloved so-called progenitors, who were themselves caught up in the entire problem of discourse, with the previous generation behind them also. And this is the level at which it would really necessary to have made enquiries.

无论如何,每一个情况,都会有某一个层次,事情一筹莫展。那就是曾经生产语言的影响的那些人,会发生的层次,因为每个小孩的诞生,都必须处理他所谓敬爱的祖先作为仲介的语言的薪传。至於祖先,他们本身也深深受困於真理论述的整个难题,由於总是有先前的一代在他们的前头。就是这个层次,我们有需要再做探讨。

If it’s one’s wish that something turn—of course, ultimately, no one can ever turn, as I have emphasized enough—it is certainly not by being progressive, it is simply because it can’t prevent itself from turning. If it doesn’t turn, it will grind away, there where things raise questions, that is, at the level of putting something into place that can be written as a

即使我们的希望是,事情能有所改变,当然,最后,确实还是无人能够憑藉进步的观念就改变,我曾经一再强调过,主要是因为它无法阻止自己不要改变。假如事情没有改变,它会越来越密集,就会产生一些问题,换句话说,能够被书写为小客体的东西越来越多。

Has that ever existed? Yes, no doubt, and it is the Ancients who, in the end, give us its strongest proof and, subsequently, over the course of ages, the informal, classical things that in some way were copied from them.

那种状况曾经存在过吗?是的,那是无可置疑,最后,我们可以从古代人得到最强而有力的证据。随後,经过几个世纪的过程,那些非正式的、古典的事情,都是从古代人那里模仿下来。

For us, at the level at which things are happening for the moment, what can this point of auscultation, everything that in the body remains alive, remains as knowledge, the nursling, why not, this look, this cry, this squawking, it barks—what can this hope for ? What can it do?

对於我们,处於目前事情正在发生的层次,这个像是医生侧耳听诊孕妇肚子里婴儿的脉动,身体内的活生生的胎儿,我们始终知道,胎儿不久会诞生,为什麽会不知道?婴儿一但出现,哇哇的哭声及场面的喧嚣,这会带来怎样的希望?它能够做些什麽?

I will try to tell you next time what that which I call “ the strike of culture” signifies.

下一次,我将告诉你们,我所谓的「文化的薪传」意味着什麽。

雄伯译
springherohsiung@gmail.com