拉岡講座251

拉岡講座251

FROM INTERPRETATION TO THE TRANSFERENCE
從解釋到移情

Metaphor.
隱喻
Interpretation is not open to all meanings
意義並非任憑解釋

1
Let us move on. In an article, to which I have already referred in order to correct what seemed to me its dangers, an attempt has been made, in an effort that is not without merit, to give form to certain notions I have introduced concerning the structure of language inherent in the unconscious. What emerged was a formula that consists, in short, in translating the formula that I gave of the metaphor. This formula was essential and usable, since it manifests the dimension in which the unconscious appears, in as much as the operation of signifying condensation is fundamental to it.

讓我們繼續談下去。在一篇我已經提過的文章,依我的看法,它似乎已經修正內容的危險性。它企圖將某些我介紹過觀念,如無意識本質上的語言結構,賦予形式,這是它的可貴之處。結果出現一個公式,總而言之,這個公式被用來詮釋我所列舉的隱喻的形式。這個公式非常重要,而且好用,因為它展示在無意識出現的領域,意符的凝縮作用,是基本的功能。

Of course, signifying condensation, with its metaphorical effect, can be observed quite openly in any poetic metaphor. That is why I took my example from Booze Endormi. Go back to my article, L’Instance de Ia Iettre dans I’inconscient, published in La Psychoanalyze. Of all poems, I have taken the one that, in French, may be said to echo in more people’s memories than any other. Who did not learn when a child to recite endormi! It isn’t a bad example to be used by analysts, especially at the point I introduced it, that is to say, when introducing at the same time the paternal metaphor.

當然,意符的凝縮,具有隱喻的效應,這在任何一首詩的隱喻,明顯可觀察得出來。這就是為什麼我引用布茲、殷多米的詩集。先回到我在精神分析刊物的一篇文章「無意識領域字母的代理」。在所有的詩中,我選了一首膾炙人口的法文名詩。在兒童時代,我們有誰不曾背誦過布茲、殷多米的幾首詩?現在被精神分析師借用作為例子,也還不錯。特別是在我介紹它的時機,換言之,我介紹它,作為父權隱喻的時機。

I won’t go over again what I said, but my reason for introducing it now is obviously to show you what is contributed to the creation of meaning by the fact of designating the character who is in question, Booz —in that position both of divine father and instrument of God—by the metaphor—Sa gerbe
n’était pas avare ni haineuse (‘His sheaf was neither miserly nor spiteful’). The dimension of meaning opened up by this metaphor is nothing less than what appears to us in the final image, that of the golden sickle carelessly thrown into the field of stars. It is the very dimension hidden in this poem. More hidden than you think, because it is not enough to refer to the sickle which Jupiter used to flood the world with the blood of Chronos.

我無庸重複我剛才的話,但是我現在介紹它的理由,顯然是要告訴你們,我指明這位毀譽參半的人物,既是聖父,又是上帝的代理。隱喻來說,「他的光輝洋溢,但不炙熱」,這一句的意義的創造因素是什麼?這句隱喻的意義道道地地就是最後一個意象所揭露的:「黃金般的鐮刀,輕率地擲向星空!」這就是隱匿於這首詩的意涵。超乎你們想像地隱匿,因為它不僅提到邱比特神使用洪水來淹沒大地時,手中拿著的鐮刀。

The dimension of castration that is involved here is, in the Biblical perspective, of a quite different order, and is at work there, present with all the echoes of history, including Booz’s invocations to the Lord—Comment surgira-t-il de moi, vieil homme, une descendance? (How will there ever be offspring for such an old man as I.)

從聖經的觀點,這裡牽涉到的內容是有關閹割的意涵,是完全不同的秩序,持續地迴響在歷史的回聲中,包括布茲對於上帝的祈禱:「我這樣的老人,如何能得子嗣?」

I don’t know whether you have noticed—you would have been much more capable of doing so if this year I had done the seminar I intended doing on the Names-of-the-Father—but the Lord with the unpronounceable name is precisely he who sends children to barren women and old men. The fundamentally transbiological character of paternity, introduced by the tradition of the destiny of the chosen people, has something that is originally repressed there, and which always re-emerges in the ambiguity of lameness, the impediment and the symptom, of non-encounter, dustuchia, with the meaning that remains hidden.

我不知道你們是否注意到,假如我今年的演講內容是有關「以父之名」,你們本來比較能夠了解。但是靜默不語的上帝,確實是不能生育的女人及老人的送子觀音。基本上跨越生物領域的父權特性,基督教上帝選民的傳統,起源就具有壓抑的意涵,會以跛腳、障礙、病徵、閃躲、創傷等模稜兩可的方式一再出現,意涵始終隱匿不明。

This is a dimension that we find again and again and which, if we wish to formalize it, as the author I referred to just now tried to do, deserves to be handled with more prudence than is in fact the case—relying, in a way, on the formalism of fraction that results from marking the link that exists between the signifier and the signified by an intermediary bar. It is not absolutely illegitimate to consider that, at certain moments, this bar marks, in the relation of the signifier to the signified,
the indication of a value that is strictly what is expressed in its use as fraction in the mathematical sense of the term. But, of course, it is not the only use.

這是一個我們一再發現的意義,應該值得我們更加謹慎來處理,假如我們希望說明它。像我剛才提到的那位作者,依靠意符與意旨的仲介門閂,中間的些微變化所組成的形式主義。這並非牽強附會,假如我說,在某些時刻,這條仲介門閂以意符作為意旨的代表,代表一種價值的指示,就像是數學裡分子跟分母的關係。當然,這不是唯一的關係。

There is between the signifier and the signified, another relation which is that of the effect of meaning. Precisely at the point at which it is a question, in metaphor, of marking the effect of meaning, one can absolutely not, therefore, without taking certain precautions, and in as bold a way as has been done, manipulate this bar in a fractional transformation— which one could do if it were a question of a relation of proportion.

意符與意旨之間,還有另外一層關係,那就是意義的效應的關係。確實就是在隱喻時,標明意義的效應的問題,因此,我們處理分子轉移的這條中間橫槓,像以前一樣大膽前進,但不能不多加謹慎,因為那不單純是比例的問題。

When it is a question of fractions, one may transform the product X into a four-storeyed formula, as in the following: It was thought to be very clever to do this with metaphor, arguing from the following— to that which carries the weight, in the unconscious, of an articulation of the last signifier to embody the metaphor with the new meaning created by its use, should correspond some kind of pinning out, from one to the other, of two sigriifiers in the unconscious.

當它是一個分子的問題,我們可以將結果X,放進這四層的公式裡,如下例:用隱喻來說會比較清楚,在無意識部份,負帶最後意符表達重量的東西,使用時所創造的新的意義的隱喻,應該對應某種的輸出,從無意識的兩個意符的其中之一,到另一意符。

Such a formula is quite definitely unsatisfactory. First, because one ought to know that there can be no relations between the signifier and itself; the peculiarity of the signifier being the fact that it is unable to itself; without producing some error in logic.

這樣一個公式顯而易見是不令人滿意。首先,因為我們應該知道,意符跟自身之間無法形成關係。意符的特性在於,它若是僅僅指向自己,必然會產生邏輯上的謬誤。

雄伯曰:
意符若無真實界的意旨作為基礎,即使不產生邏輯上的謬誤,充其量也僅是語言符號的遊戲。大家若渾然不覺,樂此不疲,等到死亡大限來臨時,才幡然醒悟自己幻夢一生,自欺欺人。

To be convinced of this, one has only to refer to the antinomies that have intervened as soon as an attempt has been made to produce an exhaustive logical formulation of mathematics. The catalogue of catalogues that do not contain themselves is obviously not the same catalogue that does not contain
itself—when it is the one that is introduced in the definition and when it is the one that will be inscribed in the catalogue.

大家若是依舊不信,只要參照一下,數學符號的無窮盡演算,最後產生的結果,常是不知所云的矛盾答案。涵蓋眾多目錄的目錄,卻沒有將自身包含在內,這跟沒有包含自身的目錄並不相同。因為前者的目錄是以定義方式作為導引,銘記在目錄裡就是目錄而已。

It is so much easier to realize that what is happening is that a substitutive signifier has been put in the place of another signifier to constitute the effect of metaphor. It refers the signifier that it has usurped elsewhere. If, in fact, one wished to preserve the possibility of a handling of a fractional type, one
would place the signifier that has disappeared, the repressed signifier, below the principal bar, in the denominator, unterdrllckt.

我們很容易體會到,經常發生的是,一個替代的意符,被用來代替另一個意符,造成比喻的效果。它所指稱的意符,背後的意旨早已經蕩然無存。事實上,假如我們希望保存分子式的處理的可能性,我們應該要將消失不見的意旨,被壓抑的意符,放置到中間橫槓底下的分母位置。

Consequently, it is false to say, as has been said, that interpretation is open to all meanings under the pretext that it is a question only of the connection of a signifier to a signifier, and consequently of an uncontrollable connection. Interpretation is not open to any meaning. This would be to concede to those who rise up against the character of uncertainty in analytic interpretation that, in effect, all interpretations are possible, which is patently absurd. The fact that I have said that the effect of interpretation is to isolate in the subject a kernel, a kern, to use Freud’s own term, of non-sense, does not mean that interpretation is in itself nonsense.

結果,如剛才所說,我們若是以真實界的意旨不存在為藉口,就容許任憑解釋,這是錯誤的想法。因為意符連接意符,連接得沒完沒了,結果是什麼意義都沒有。任憑你解釋得天花亂墜,就是沒有意義。這等於是極端荒謬地承認,精神分析經驗的解釋,大家莫衷一是,就容許任憑各作解釋。我剛才說,解釋的效果就是要從主體身上,突顯出一個無意義的核心,用佛洛伊德的術語來說,就是無意義的彰顯。這個事實並不意味著,解釋的本身是胡說八道。

Interpretation is a signification that is not just any signification. It comes here in the place of the s and reverses the relation by which the signifier has the effect, in language, of the signified. It has the effect of bringing out an irreducible signifier. One must interpret at the level of the s, which is not open to all
meanings, which cannot be just anything, which is a signification, though no doubt only an approximate one.

解釋代表的意義,並非是任憑各自解讀。解釋在此是代替語言的主體,然後將語言當中,意符受到意旨的影響的關係,倒轉過來。它具有意符無法化簡為意旨的影響。我們必須從作為語言主體的層次來解釋。這種解釋並非開放給各種意義,意義無法任憑解讀,儘管他們頗為接近。

What is there is rich and complex, when it is a question of the unconscious of the subject, and intended to bring out irreducible, nonsensical— composed of non-meanings— signifying elements. In this same article, Leclaire’s work illustrates particularly well the crossing of significant interpretation towards signifying non-sense, when he proposes, on the subject of his obsessional neurotic patient, the so-called Poordjeli formula, which links the two syllables of the word licorne (unicorn), thus enabling him to introduce into his sequence a whole chain in which his desire is animated. Indeed, you will see in what he will publish later that things go much further still.

當我們提到主體的無意識的問題,用來顯露組成那無法窮盡的無意義的意符的元素,我們發現那裡的東西是不但豐富,而且複雜。在同一篇文章,列克雷特別清楚說明,意義的解釋朝著無意義邁進。在論及著魔精神病患的主體時,他提出所謂的「普潔離公式」,連接unicorn「獨角獸」的兩個音節,使他能夠介紹欲望被激發出來的一套鎖鏈。的確,你會看到,他後來出版的內容,還會更加深入。

Interpretation is not open to all meanings. It is not just any interpretation. It is a significant interpretation, one that must not be missed. This does not mean that it is not this signification that is essential to the advent of the subject. What is essential is that he should see, beyond this signification, to what signifier —to what irreducible, traumatic, non-meaning—he is, as a subject, subjected.

意義並非任憑各自解釋。解釋不僅僅語言的解釋,解釋要能夠創造意義,而且意義是一定不可欠缺的。這並不意味著,對於主體的來臨,重要的不是這個意義。重要的是他應該看出,在這個意義之外,他作為一個主體,無論發揮怎樣的意符,最後終就是無法成為意義,只能成為創傷及無意義。

This enables us to conceive what is materialized in the experience. I would ask you to take up one of Freud’s great psycho-analytic cases, the greatest of all, the most sensational —because one sees in it, more clearly than anywhere else, where the problem of the conversion of phantasy and reality
converge, namely, in something irreducible, non-sensical, that functions as an originally repressed signifier—I mean the case of the Wolf Man. In The Wolf Man, I would say, to give you the thread that will guide you through your reading, that the sudden appearance of the wolves in the window in the dream plays the function of the s, as representative of the loss of the subject.

這使我們能夠將精神分析經驗,具體地構想。我要求你們去看一個佛洛伊德的精神分析病例。那是一個最偉大,也是最聳動的病例,因為從那裡,我們能夠比任何地方都看得清楚,幻想跟真實的匯聚及轉換的問題所在,換言之,某件無法成為意義及無意義的東西,充當原初被壓抑的意符。我指的是「狼人」的病例。在「狼人」病例,讓我給你們引導閱讀的線索,在夢中,狼突然出現在窗戶,扮演的功用是:主體消失的代表。

It is not only that the subject is fascinated by the sight of these wolves, which number seven, and which, in fact, in his drawing of them perched on the tree number only five. It is that their fascinated gaze is the subject

主體不但被狼的景象著迷,數目是七隻,但事實上,他繪畫它們時,潛伏在樹木上的狼,只有五隻。而且受到著迷的凝視,是主體本身。

What does the whole case show? It shows that at each stage in the life of the subject, something always arrived to reshape the value of the determining index represented by this original signifier. Thus the dialectic of the subject’s desire as constituting itself from the desire of the Other is correctly grasped.
Remember the adventure of the father, the sister, the mother and the servant-woman Groucha. So many different stages that enrich the unconscious desire of the subject with something that is to be put, as signification constituted in the relation to the desire of the Other, in the numerator.

整個病例顯示什麼?它顯示,在主體一生的每一個階段,總是有某件東西來到,重新塑造原初意符代表的指標的價值。因此,主體欲望的辯證法,根據大它者的欲望組成,可以正確地被理解。你們記得他跟父親、姐妹、母親及女樸人葛羅采的冒險。眾多不同的階段,使主體的無意識欲望蓬勃豐富,放置於分母的位置,作為組成跟大它者的欲望的關係。

Note what happens then. I would ask you to consider the logical necessity of that moment in which the subject as X can be constituted only from the Urverdrdngung, from the necessary fall of this first signifier. He is constituted around the UrverdrJngung, but he cannot substitute anything for it as such— since this would require the representation of one signifier for another, whereas here there is only one, the first. In this X, we must consider two sides—that constituent moment that sees the collapse of significance, which we articulate in a place in its function at the level of the unconscious, but also the return effect, which operates from this relation that may be conceived on the basis of the fraction. It must be introduced only with prudence, but it is well indicated for us by the effects of language.

然後,請注意發生什麼事。我要你們考慮一下那個時刻的邏輯必然性。主體作為X的未知數,就是由這個原初的意符的必然的掉落所組成。他的組成繞著這個掉落,但是又無法用任何東西來代替,因為這要求用一個意符代替另外一個意符,但是掉落的意符只有一個,原初的意符。在這個未知數X,我們必須考慮到兩邊:一邊是看到意義崩塌的形成的時刻,我們將它放在無意識層次的功用來表達。另一邊是回轉的影響,其運作的關係,可以根據分子的基礎來構想。介紹時必須要小心謹慎,但是語言的影響給我們指明得很清楚。

Everyone knows that if zero appears in the denominator, the value of the fraction no longer has meaning, but assumes by convention what mathematicians call an infinite value. In a way, this is one of the stages in the constitution of the subject.

每個人都知道,假如出現在分母的數目是零,那麼分子的價值就不再有任何意義。但是每個人根據傳統相信數學家所謂的無限值。在某方面,這是主體形成時的階段信仰。

In so far as the primary signifier is pure non-sense, it becomes the bearer of the infinitization of the value of the subject, not open to all meanings, but abolishing them all, which is different. This explains why I have been unable to deal with the relation of alienation without introducing the word freedom. What, in effect, grounds, in the meaning and radical non-meaning of the subject, the function of freedom, is strictly speaking this signifier that kills all meanings.

由於原初的意符就是純粹的無意義,這個無意義的意符負載著主體的價值的無限值,無法開放任憑解釋,因為任何解釋,儘管有差異,最後都蕩然無存。這解釋為什麼我處理疏離的關係時,必然要介紹「自由」這個字眼。事實上,作為主體的意義跟完全無意義的基礎,也就是自由的功用,嚴格來說,就是意義蕩然無存的這個無意義的意符。

This is why it is untrue to say that the signifier in the unconscious is open to all meanings. It constitutes the subject in his freedom in relation to all meanings, but this does not mean that it is not determined in it. For, in the numerator, in the place of the zero, the things that are inscribed are significations, dialectized significations in the relation of the desire of the Other, and they give a particular value to the relation of the subject to the unconscious.

這就是為什麼說,無意識的意符開放各種解釋是不正確的。這個意符讓主體自由地跟各種意義組成關係,但這並不意味著,主體不受到原初意符的操控。因為出現在分母的數目若是零,那些呈現作為意義的東西,作為大它者的欲望的關係所演算出來的意義,在主體跟無意識的關係,他們給予特別的價值。

It will be important, in what will follow in my seminar next year, to show how the experience of analysis forces us to seek a kind of formalization such that the mediation of this infinity of the subject with the finiteness of desire may occur only through the intervention of what Kant, on his entry into the gravitation of what is called philosophical thinking, introduced with so much freshness in the term negative quantities.

在我明年的演講時,我會顯示,精神分析的經驗如何強迫我們尋求一種正常化關係,這樣,主體的這種無限值,跟欲望的有限值,才能憑藉哲學家康德新奇介紹的「負數質量」這個術語,才可能調適,當他從事所謂的哲學思考的引力時。

The freshness is important here, of course, because there is a difference between forcing philosophers to reflect on the fact that minus one ( — i) is not zero and the fact that people soon lose interest in such talk and cease to listen. Nevertheless—and this is the only use of the reference to philosophical articulation —men survive only by being at each moment so forgetful of all their conquests, I am speaking of their subjective conquests.

當然,這個術語的新奇在此是很重要的,因為強迫哲學家去思考負一不等於是零這個是事實,迴然不同於人們聽膩這樣的談話,不願再聽的這個事實。可是,這是哲學表達的唯一用途,因為人們生活的時時刻刻,就是會忘記自己的征服,我是說人們的主觀上的征服。

Of course, from the moment they forget them, they are nevertheless conquered, but it is rather they who are conquered by the effects of these conquests. And the fact of being conquered by something that one does not know sometimes has formidable consequences, the first of which is confusion.
Negative quantity, then, is the term that we shall find to designate one of the supports of what is called the castration complex, namely, the negative effect in which the phallus object enters into it. This is no more than a foretaste, but I thought it worth saying.

當然,從人們忘記的時刻,他們仍然被征服。但是,被這些征服的影響所征服的人,仍然是他們自己。被某件自己不知道的東西所征服的這個事實,有時會有巨大的後果,第一個後果就是困惑。因此,「負數質量」是我們找到的術語,用來表達所謂的「閹割情結」的內涵,換言之,陽具客體進入時產生的負面影響。我現在只是淺嘗輒止,但是我認為還是值得一提。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

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