拉岡講座239

拉岡講座239
i6
THE SUBJECT AND THE OTHER: ALIENATION
主體與大它者:疏離

Sexual dynamics.
性的動力學

If psycho-analysis is to be constituted as the science of the unconscious, one must set out from the notion that the unconscious is structured like a language. From this I have deduced a topology intended to account for the constitution of the subject.

精神分析學若是要成為無意識的科學,我們出發的觀念必須是:無意識的結構像是一種語言。從這裡,我曾演繹出一種地形學,用來解釋主體的形成。

At a time that I hope we have now put behind us, it was objected that in giving dominance to structure I was neglecting the dynamics so evident in our experience. It was even said that I went so far as to ignore the principle affirmed in Freudian doctrine that this dynamics is, in its essence, through and
through, sexual. I hope my seminar for this year, especially at the point at which it reached its culmen last time, has shown you that this dynamics is far from being ignored in my thinking.

有一陣子,我希望我們的進度已經超前,有人反對說,我過於重視結構,而忽略了我們精神分析經驗頗為顯著的動力學。甚至有人說,我過於忽視佛洛伊德學說所肯定的原理,換言之,這個動力學,在本質上,道道地地就是性。我希望,我今年的講座,特別是上一次己經到達一個段落,已經讓你們了解,我的學說絲毫沒有忽略這個動力學。

I
I would remind you, for the benefit of those who were absent last time, that I added a quite new element to this dynamics, the use of which will become apparent later.

我將提醒你們,顧慮到上一次有人缺席,我替這個動力學添增一個相當新的元素,這個元素的使用等一下會很明顯。

First, I stressed the division that I make by opposing, in relation to the entrance of the unconscious, the two fields of the subject and the Other. The Other is the locus in which is situated the chain of the signifier that governs whatever may be made present of the subject—it is the field of that living being in which the subject has to appear. And I said that it was on the side of this living being, called to subjectivity, that the drive is essentially manifested.

首先,我強調我所做的這個區分:當我們進入無意識時,會有主體跟大它者兩個領域的對立。大它者是意符的鎖鏈位置所在的軌跡,統轄主體身上出現的任何東西。它是主體出現時,必須要依存的活動領域。我說,欲望驅力基本上就是展現就在這個活動領域,被稱為是主觀性的領域。

Every drive being, by its essence as drive, a partial drive, no drive represents—a notion that Freud raises for a moment when he asks himself whether it is love that realizes it—the totality of the Sexualsirebung, of the sexual tendency, as it might be conceived as making present in the psyche the function of Fortpftancung, of reproduction, if this function entered the psyche at all.

因為每個驅力就其本質而言,都是部份的驅力,所以沒有任何單一驅力代表性慾望的整體。
佛洛伊德曾有一陣子提起過這個觀念,他問自己,實踐性慾望的整體,是否就是愛。若是,我們就可以認為是愛將繁殖的功用顯現在心理層面,假如這個功用牽扯到心理的層面。

Who would not accept this function on the biological plane? What I am saying, following Freud, who provides abundant evidence of it, is that this function is not represented as such in the psyche. In the psyche, there is nothing by which the subject may situate himself as a male or female being. In his psyche, the subject situates only equivalents of the function of reproduction—activity and passivity, which by no means represent it in an exhaustive way. Freud even adds a touch of irony to this by stressing that this representation is not as constricting or as exhaustive as that—durchgreifend aussch-
Iieblich—the polarity of the male and the female being is represented only by the polarity of activity, which is manifested through the Triebe, and of passivity, which is passivity only in relation to the exterior, gegen die dusseren

有誰能否認這個在生物層面上的功用呢?佛洛伊德提供充份的證據,我追隨他,所要補充的是:這個繁殖的功用在心理層面,並沒有具體的代表。在心理層面,沒有一樣東西可以讓主體將自己定位為男性或女性的生物。在各人的心理層面,主體只找到繁殖的功用的類同物的位置,例如主動跟被動。可是,主動跟被動並沒有全面性的代表繁殖的功用。佛洛伊德甚至自我解嘲地強調,這個代表的局限跟涵蓋範圍,不如說是,代表男性跟女性的兩極的主動,是透過欲望驅力顯現,而被動則是跟外在有關時,才顯現出來。

Only this division—and it is here that I left off last time— makes necessary what was first revealed by analytic experience, namely, that the ways of what one must do as man or as woman are entirely abandoned to the drama, to the scenario, which is placed in the field of the Other—which, strictly speaking, is the Oedipus complex. –

我上次只談到這樣的區分。這樣的區分使精神分析經驗首先顯露的內容,具有意義。換言之,身為男人或身為女人,我們所必須要有的行為舉止,完全屈從於大它者領域所編寫的戲碼或劇本的支配。嚴格來說,就是伊底普斯情結。

I stressed this last time, when I told you that the human being has always to learn from scratch from the Other what he has to do, as man or as woman. I referred to the old woman in the story of Daphnis and Chloe, which shows us that there is an ultimate field, the field of sexual fulfilment, in which, in the
last resort, the innocent does not know the way.

上一次我強調這一點,當我告訴你們,人類總是跟大它者從頭學習,身為男人或身為女人,要有怎樣的行為舉止。我提到達芬跟柯羅青梅竹馬的故事裡,有個媒婆當紅娘,是要顯示,在履行性行為的最後場域,純真的少男少女,還是要人指點,才知道怎麼辦。

Whether it is the drive, the partial drive, that orientates him to it, or whether the partial drive alone is the representative in the psyche of the consequences of sexuality, this is a sign that sexuality is represented in the psyche by a relation of the subject that is deduced from something other than sexuality. Sexuality is established in the field of the subject by a way that is that of lack.

是否欲望驅力,這個部份驅力,在引導他們,或是否僅僅是部份欲望驅力,就是性行為的結果在心理方面的代表,這都指示著,性在心理層面的代表,是主體的關係,而這個關係是性以外的東西演變而來。性以一種欠缺的方式,被建立在主體的領域。

Two lacks overlaps here. The first emerges from the central defect around which the dialectic of the advent of the subject to his own being in the relation to the Other turns—by the fact that the subject depends on the signifier and that the signifier is first of all in the field of the Other. This lack takes up the other lack, which is the real, earlier lack, to be situated at the advent of the living being, that is to say, at sexed reproduction.

兩個欠缺在這裡重疊。第一個欠缺出現在中央的缺陷處。繞著這個缺陷處,主體發展他跟大它者的關係,而接觸到他自己的存在,因為主體依靠意符來發展,而意符首先出現在大它者的領域。這個欠缺接替了另外一個欠缺,真實界的欠缺,更早的欠缺,位於人作為生物剛開始的地方,換言之,性的繁殖所在。

The real lack is what the living being loses, that part of himself qua living being, in reproducing himself through the way of sex. This lack is real because it relates to something real, namely,
that the living being, by being subject to sex, has fallen under the blow of individual death.

真實界的欠缺,是人作為生物所喪失的部份,是人作為生物,透過性的方式,繁殖自身的那個部份。這個欠缺是真實的,因為它跟某件真實的東西有關聯,換言之,人作為生物,隸屬於性的繁殖,終歸會遭受到個體死亡的打擊。

Aristophanes’ myth pictures the pursuit of the complement for us in a moving, and misleading, way, by articulating that it is the other, one’s sexual other half; that the living being seeks in love. To this mythical representation of the mystery of love, analytic experience substitutes the search by the subject, not of the sexual complement, but of the part of himself, lost forever, that is constituted by the fact that he is only a sexed living being, and that he is no longer immortal.

亞力斯多芬的神話,以生動而令人迷惑的方式,描繪我們人為彌補這一欠缺所從事的追尋。他清楚地表達,人作為生物在戀愛中所尋求的,就是另外一半,性的另外一半。對於愛的神秘的這種奧妙代表,精神分析經驗取而代之以另一種主體,不是性互補的主體,而是永久喪失的自身那部份的主體。因為人若僅僅是作為性的生物,他必然要面對自身個體的死亡。

You will now understand that—for the same reason that it is through the lure that the sexed living being is induced into his sexual realization—the drive, the partial drive, is profoundly a death drive and represents in itself the portion of death in the sexed living being.

你現在將會了解到,如同人作為性的生物,是透過誘惑的方式,被誘導去從事性的行為,欲望驅力,這個部份驅力,道道地地就是一個死亡的驅力。它本身代表人作為性的生物,屬於死亡的部份。

Thus defying, perhaps for the first time in history, a myth that has acquired so much prestige, and which last time l placed under the same heading as Plato places that of Aristophanes, I substituted the myth intended to embody the missing part, which I called the myth of the lamella.

我這種說法,可能是有史以來第一次,挑戰到一個已經頗具權威的神話。我上一次將這個神話,給予一個標題,類似柏拉圖給予亞力斯多芬的寓言的標題。我用一個我稱之為「薄膜」的神話,代替亞力斯多芬「男女各尋找性的另一半互補」的神話。

This is new and it is important because it designates the libido not as a field of forces, but as an organ.
The libido is the essential organ in understanding the nature of the drive. This organ is unreal. Unreal is not imaginary. The unreal is defined by articulating itself on the real in a way that eludes us, and it is precisely this that requires that its representation should be mythical, as I have made it. But the fact that it is unreal does not prevent an organ from embodying itself.

我這個新潁的說法非常重要,因為它指明力比多不是一個力量的場域,而是一個器官。要了解欲望驅力的性質,力比多是這個基本的器官。這個器官是非真實的。非真實不同於憑空想像。非真實的定義是:以我們捉摸不定的方式,在真實界表達自己。就是因為這樣,它的代表符號應該是神秘奧妙,如我所曾經表達的。但是力比多是非真實,並不意味著,它作為器官,無法具體表現自己。

I will give you its materialization at once. One of the most ancient forms in which this unreal organ is incarnated in the body, is tattooing, scarification. The tattoo certainly has the function of being for the Other, of situating the subject in it, marking his place in the field of the group’s relations, between
each individual and all the others. And, at the same time, it obviously has an erotic function, which all those who have approached it in reality have perceived.

我馬上給你看一下力比多的具體表現。這個非真實的器官,在身體上具體表現的最古老的形式,就是刺青,或是紋身。刺青確實具有充當大它者的功用,替主體找到定位,標示主體在團體關係的場域,在每個主體跟所有其它主體之間的位置。同時,它很明顯地具有宣示性欲的功用。你們若曾經看過刺青或紋身,你們就會感覺到。

I have also shown that, in the profound relation of the drive, what is essential is that the movement by which the arrow that sets out towards the target fulfills its function only by really reemerging from it, and returning on to the subject. In this sense, the pervert is he who, in short circuit, more directly than any other, succeeds in his aim, by integrating in the most profound way his function as subject with his existence as desire.

我也曾經顯示,在欲望驅力的深層關係,重要的是動作過程:射向目標的箭,要從目標再射出來,繼續回到主體,這樣才算實踐了它的功用。以這層意義來說,性變態者是這樣的人,他用抄捷徑的迴旋,比任何其它的人更直接,成功地達成他自己的目標。他用最深刻的方式,調適自己作為主體的功用,及作為欲望的生命存在。

Here the reversal of the drive is something quite different from the variation of ambivalence that makes the object oscillate from the field of hate to that of love and vice versa, depending on whether or not it benefits the well-being of the subject. It is not when the object in one’s sights is not good that one becomes a masochist. It is not because her father disappointed her that Freud’s female patient (known as ‘the homosexual’) becomes homosexual—she could have taken a lover. Whenever we are in the dialectic of the drive, something else takes charge. The dialectic of the drive is profoundly different both from that which belongs to the order of love and from that which belongs to the well-being of the subject.

在此,欲望驅力的翻轉完全不同於愛恨交加的轉變。後者是,客體從恨的場域,搖擺到愛的場域,然後再從愛的場域,搖擺到恨的場域,端賴對於主體的幸福是否有利益。人們成為性受虐待狂,並不是發生在眼前的對象,對待他們不好的時刻。眾所周知的佛洛伊德的那位同性戀女病人,並不是因為她的父親辜負她,她才變成同性戀者。她若是真的要一位異性情人,也沒有什麼困難。每當我們處於這種欲望驅力的演變時,總是會有其它的東西出來接管。欲望驅力的演變,絕對不同於愛與恨的交替,也不同於主體的幸福與否。

That is why today I wish to stress the operation of the realization of the subject in his signifying dependence in the locus of the Other.

那就是為什麼,我今天希望強調,人作為主體,要實踐自我,必然要考慮到,自己的意符受制於大它者的軌跡的支配。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

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