拉岡講座227

拉岡講座227

The entrance into the unconscious
進入無意識
Anna 0. and Freud’s desire
安娜與佛洛伊德

3
In order not to leave you thunderstruck by an affirmation that might seem to you somewhat risky, I shall do no more than remind you how Freud sees the entrance into the unconscious.

為了不要危言聳聽,我將只提醒你們佛洛伊德如何看待進入無意識。

Anna 0.—let us drop this story of 0 and call her by her real name, Bertha Pappenheim, one of the great names in the world of social welfare in Germany—not long ago one of my pupils brought me a small German postage stamp bearing her face, so you see she left some mark in history. It was in the case of Anna 0. that the transference was discovered. Breuer was quite delighted with the smooth way the operation was going. At that time, no one would have challenged the signifier, if it had been
possible to restore this word to life from the Stoic vocabulary.

讓我們不要再將安娜作為虛構人物,而直呼其真實姓名,帛莎、巴扁汗,那也是德國社會奮鬥史的偉人的名字。不久以前,我的一位學生給我一張德國郵票,上面有她的肖像。你們看出她在歷史名聲還有一席之地。我們在安娜的病例,可發現到移情的現象。布魯爾對於移情發生的一帆風順,還有點沾沾自喜。在當時,沒有人會去挑戰移情的這個意符,即使我們將這個字詞恢復到禁欲學派的原來意義。

The more Anna provided signifiers, the more she chattered on, the better it went. It was a case of the chimney-sweeping treatment. There was no trace, in all this, of the least embarrassing thing. Look again. No sexuality, either under the microscope or in the distance.

安娜提供的意符愈多,她愈喋喋不休,狀況進行得愈好。這是清掃內心污穢的治療方式。治療過程,絲毫沒有什麼令人尷尬的跡象。請再注意一下。沒有性的醜聞,不管你用顯微鏡或望遠鏡去看。

Yet sexuality was nevertheless introduced by Breuer. Something even began to come back to him, it came back to him from himself— you are rather preoccupied by it. Thereupon, the dear man, somewhat alarmed, good husband that he was, decided that things had gone quite far enough—in response to which, as you know, 0. displayed the magnificent and dramatic manifestations of what, in scientific language, is called pseudo-cyesis or, more familiarly, she blew up with what is called a nervous pregnancy.

可是,布魯爾這邊卻牽扯到性。他開始發生一些變化,他不知不覺意識到自己「你過份投入這個個案」。這位精神分析師,是一位循規蹈矩的丈夫,他因此驚慌失措地決定要懸崖勒馬。如大家知道,安娜的反應是顯示出聳人聽聞的症狀,用科學的術語說,是「假性懷孕」,或用通俗話說,她用所謂的心因性懷孕,爆發這件醜聞。

What did she show by this? One may speculate, but one must refrain from resorting too precipitously to the language of the body. Let us say simply that the domain of sexuality shows a natural functioning of signs. At this level, they are not signifiers, for the nervous pregnancy is a symptom, and, according to the definition of the sign, something intended for someone. The signifier, being something quite different, represents a subject for another signifier.

她這樣做意圖何在?我們可以各自想像,但是我們務必不要匆促就聯想到跟身體的語言有關。我們不妨這樣說,性的領域會顯示出一些符號的自然運作。在這個層次上,它們不是意符,因為心因性懷孕是一個病癥,依照這個名詞的定義,就是對於某人有意圖。這個意符代表另一個意符的主體,雖然兩個意符並不相同。

There is a great difference to be articulated here, for, and not without cause, there is a tendency to say quite simply that it was Bertha’s fault. But I would beg you to suspend your thoughts on this matter for a moment—why is it that we do not consider Bertha’s pregnancy rather, according to my formula
man’s desire is the desire of the Other, as the manifestation of Breuer’s desire? Why do you not go as far as to think that it was Breuer who had a desire for a child? I will give you the beginning of a proof; namely that Breuer, setting off for Italy with his wife, lost no time in giving her a child, as Ernest Jones
reminds his interlocutor—a child which, from being born in these conditions, says the imperturbable Weishman, had just, moment when Jones was speaking, committed suicide.

在此我們要區別一個很大的差異,大家都傾向於說,這都是帛莎自己不對。這也不是沒有道理,但是我要求你們對這件事情,暫時不要這樣定調。我們何不將帛莎的心因性懷孕,認為是布魯爾的欲望的顯示,依照我的公式就是「人的欲望是對於大它者的欲望」?你們何不進一步認為,是布魯爾渴望要有小孩?我將開始給你們一些証據,布魯爾與他的太太動身前往義大利,馬上讓她懷孕生下小孩,律師恩尼司、瓊茲提醒詢問者。在這些情況生下小孩,意味著,這位處變不驚的德國精神分析師已經自殺,就在瓊茲替他辯解的時候。

Let us leave to one side what we might in fact think of a desire to which even this outcome is not indifferent. But let us observe what Freud says to Breuer— What! The transference is the spontaneity
of the said Bertha’s unconscious. It’s not yours, not your desire, it’s the desire of the Other. I think Freud treats Breuer as a hysteric here, since he says to him: Your desire is the desire of the Other. The
curious thing is, he does not make him feel less guilty, but he certainly makes him feel less anxious— those who know the difference that I am making between these two levels may take
this as an instance of it.

讓我們將欲望的一般看法先擱置一旁,雖然它跟這件事情的結果不是沒有關係。讓我們先觀察佛洛伊德對於布魯爾怎麼說:「什麼!移情是帛莎無意識的情不自禁?她的移情不是對你的欲望,對你本人的欲望,而是對於大它者的欲望。」我想佛洛依德是將布魯爾,看著是歇斯底里症者,因為他對他說:「對於你的欲望,就是對於大它者的欲望。」耐人尋味的是,佛洛伊德並沒有使布魯爾減少罪惡感,但是確實使他不再那麼焦慮。各位若是知道我現在正使用的兩個名詞層次的不同,你們可視它為一個例子。

This brings us to the question of what Freud’s desire decided, in diverting the whole apprehension of the transference in a direction that has now reached its final term of absurdity, to the point at which an analyst may say that the whole theory of the transference is merely a defence of the analyst.

這讓我們碰到一個問題:當佛洛伊德將移情的完整理解,轉移到一個方向,這個方向現在到它充滿荒謬的術語,到達精神分析師可以說,整個移情理論僅僅就是在替精神分析師做辯解。佛洛伊德的欲望決定了什麼?

I swing this extreme term in another direction. Indeed, I show precisely the opposite side when I say that it is the desire of the analyst. You must follow my thinking here. It’s not simply a matter of turning things upside-down. With this key, read some general account of the question of the transference, written by anybody—anyone who could write “ Que sais-je?” on psycho-analysis can just as easily give you a general account of the transference. So read his general account of the transference, which I designate here adequately enough, and draw your own conclusions with this in mind.

我將這個極端的術語轉移到另一個方向。的確,當我說移情是精神分析師的欲望,我給你們看到相反的一面。請你們聽我詳述。這不僅是一個翻轉事理的問題。關鍵就在此,你們若閱讀有關移情的問題的一般描述,任何人寫的均可,類似「蔡志忠」有關精神分析的「佛洛伊德說」漫畫書,你們會很容易了解移情的一般觀念。你們閱讀他對於移情的一般描述,我在此也曾經一提再提過,你們就會得到你們跟我一樣的結論。

Is not the contribution that each individual, Freud apart, brings to the subject of the transference something in which his desire is perfectly legible? I could do an analysis of Abraham for you simply on the basis of his theory of part-objects. It is not only a question of what the analyst wants to do with his
patient in the matter. It is also a question of what his patient wants to do with him. Abraham, we might say, wanted to be a complete mother.

除了佛洛伊德外,每個人所做的貢獻,不就是企圖將他自己的欲望,清楚表達地傳遞到移情的主體?例如,光憑藉佛洛伊德的「部份客體」理論,我就能夠將阿伯拉罕做個精神分析。這個問題不是,精神分析師要如何治療他的病人。這個問題也是,他的病人要如何跟他打交道。阿伯拉罕想要成為一位完美的母親,我們不妨這樣說。

Then I might also amuse myself by punctuating the fringes of Ferenczi’s theory with a famous song by Georgius Je suis fils-père (‘I am son-father’).

我也想引用精神分析師菲蘭基,有關喬吉思的一首著名歌曲(我是父親的兒子)的理論,牽強附會自娛一下。

Nunberg, too, has his own intentions, and in his truly remarkable article on Love and Transference, he shows himself to be in the position of arbiter between the powers of life and death, in which one cannot fail to see an aspiration to the divine position.

蘭伯革精神分析師也有他自己的各種企圖。在他那篇「論愛情與移情」的精闢的文章,他表現他自己,作為是一位生與死的力量的仲裁者的立場。在那個立場,我們必然會觀看到一種對於聖靈地位的渴望。

All this may be no more than a kind of game. But it is in the course of some such story that one can isolate functions like those that I wished to reproduce here on the blackboard.

所有這些可能只是某種遊戲。但是在這些故事的過程,我們能夠摘取出一些功用。我現在將他們複製在黑板上。

In order to conjugate the schema of the net with those I have made in response to a psychologizing theory of the psychoanalytic personality, you have only to turn the obturator I referred to earlier into a camera shutter, except that it would be a mirror. It is in this little mirror, which shuts out what is on the other side, that the subject sees emerge the game by means of which he may—according to the illusion of what is obtained in the experiment of the inverted bunch of flowers, that is to say, a real image — accommodate his own image around what appears, the petit a.

為了將我的網圈的基型,跟我回應精神分析人格理論的基型,聯想在一起,你們只要將我早先提到的封閉器,轉換成照相機的快門,除了後者是一面鏡子。從遮蔽了另一面的鏡子上,主體看到遊戲的出現。作為遊戲,他可以繞著出現的小客體,調適他自己的形象,依照他自己的幻想,真實影象的倒轉,例如花束擺設的位置的倒轉。

It is in the sum of these accommodations of images that the subject must find the opportunity for an essential integration. What do we know of all this ?—if it is only at the mercy of fluctuations in the history of analysis, of the commitment of the desire of each analyst, we manage to add some small detail, some corroborating observation, some incidental addition or refinement, which enables us to define the presence, at the level of desire, of each of the analysts. This was the band, as Freud put it, that he left behind to follow him.

從眾多的影像的調適,主體一定可以找到機會,為自己的形像,作一個基本的整合。問題是,對於這些,我們知道多少?受到精神分析學發展的不同階段的理論的影響,每一位精神分析師的欲望,所奉獻的領域各有不同,有人設法增加一些細節,有人設法強化一些觀察,有人心血來潮的潤飾或美化一下。這些都使我們能夠說明,每一位精神分析師都存在於他自己的欲望層次。

After all, the people who followed Christ were not so brilliant. Freud was not Christ, but he was perhaps something like Viridiana.2 The characters who are photographed, so ironically in that film, with a small apparatus, sometimes remind me irresistibly of the group, also photographed innumerable times, of those who were Freud’s apostles and epigones.

畢竟,跟隨耶穌的那些信徒未必個個傑出。佛洛伊德不是耶穌,倒是像布紐爾的影片中,模擬達文西「最後的晚餐」的那位匹瑞地安那。一台小相機,將一起照相的那些人物,在影片中的荒謬舉止,照得原形畢露。這個畫面,有時讓我不由自主地想到那個團體,也曾被照相無數次的佛洛伊德的使徒與追隨者。

Does this diminish them in any way? No more than the apostles. It is precisely at this level that they could bear the best witness. It is by virtue of a certain naivety, a certain poverty, a certain innocence that they have most instructed us. It is true that those around Socrates were more brilliant and that they teach us no less about the transference—those who remember my seminar on this subject will bear me out. I will take this up again next time, when I will try to articulate for you the significance of the function of the analyst’s desire.

說他們不過是佛洛伊德的使徒,算是詆毀他們嗎?確實就是在使徒的這個層次,他們可以替佛洛伊德做最好的見證。他們對我們講得頭頭是道,反而顯示他們自己的幼稚及貧瘠,卻又自以為是。的確,那些環繞蘇格拉底的那些門徒,還比較有自知之明,他們的表現也同樣是一種移情。那些聽過我演講的人可以替我證實。我下一次再談這個問題。我將清楚地跟你們解釋,精神分析師的欲望的功用,有何意義。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

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