拉岡講座218

拉岡講座218

I0
PRESENCE OF THE ANALYST
精神分析師的存在

Problems of the transference.
移情的問題

So that I would not always have to be looking for a box of matches, someone gave me a very large box, as you can see. On it is written the following motto: the art of listening is almost as
important as that of saying the right thing. This apportions our tasks. Let us hope that we will measure up to them.

我並不需要隨身攜帶火柴,你們知道,總是有人遞給我一大盒。在火柴盒上寫著以下的座右銘:傾聽的藝術總是跟說話適宜同樣重要。這可適用到我精神分析的行業。讓我們希望,我們不要辜負我們的行業。

Today I shall be dealing with the transference, or rather I shall approach the question, in the hope of giving you some idea of the concept, as I promised I would do in my second talk.

今天,我將處理移情的問題。換言之,我接觸這個問題,希望你們對於移情的觀念有一些認識,這是我以下我打算要談論的內容。

I
The transference is usually represented as an affect. A rather vague distinction is then made between a positive and a negative transference. It is generally assumed, not without some foundation, that the positive transference is love—though it must be said that, in the way it is used here, this term is employed in a very approximate way.

移情通常被認同是一種情感,只是在正面的移情跟負面的移情之間略有區別。一般都將正面的移情認為是愛,不是沒有根據的。儘管如此,我們還是必須說,在精神分析師使用的方式,移情這個術語並不完全是愛情。

At a very early stage, Freud posed the question of the authenticity of love as it occurs in the transference. To come to the point, it is usually maintained that in these circumstances it Is a sort of false love, a shadow of love. But Freud himself did not weigh down the scales in this direction—far from it. Not least among the consequences of the experience of the transference
was that it led Freud to take the question of what is ailed true love, eine echte Lisbe, further perhaps than it had ever been taken.

在早期的階段,佛洛伊德提出發生在移情的愛有多麼真誠問題。我們就不拐彎抹角了,在這些情況當中,移情通常被認為是一種假的愛情,一種愛的陰影。但是佛洛伊德對於這一方面並沒有如此妄自菲薄。絲毫沒有!對於移情經驗產生的後果,他頗為看重,因為這促使佛洛伊德去探討什麼是令人痛苦的真愛的問題,他探討得比前人深入。

In the case of the negative transference, commentators are more prudent, more restrained, in the way they refer to it, and it is never identified with hate. They usually employ the term
ambivalence, a term which, even more than the first, conceals things very well, confused things that are not always handled in a satisfactory way.

在負面的移情方面,評論者則較為謹慎,較為慎重其事,因為他們提到負面的移情,並不將它認同是恨。他們通常使用的術語是愛恨交加。因為愛恨交加這個術語比起前一個術語恨,定義更加模稜兩可,而且混淆不清,所以處理的情況未必能令人滿意。

It would be truer to say that the positive transference is when you have a soft spot for the individual concerned, the analyst in this instance, and the negative transference is when you have to keep your eye on him.

這樣說也許會更真實,正面的移情是當你對你關懷的人有軟心腸的時刻,例如精神分析師。負面的移情是當你對你關懷的人有警戒提防的時刻。

There is another use of the term transference that is worth pointing out, as when one says that it structures all the particular relations with that other who is the analyst, and that the value of all the thoughts that gravitate around this relation must be connoted by a sign of particular reserve. Hence the
expression—which is always added as a kind of after-thought or parenthesis, as if to convey some kind of suspicion, when used about the behaviour of a subject—he is in full transference. This presupposes that his entire mode of apperception has been restructured around the dominant centre of the transference.

移情這個術語還有另一個用法值得一提。換言之,移情架構跟作為他者的分析師,彼此之間的特殊關係,以及環繞著那個關係運轉的所有思想的價值,必須要以特別含蓄的符號來表現內涵。因此,這個「他完全是移情」這個表達,總是被增加當著是一種恍然大悟或括弧內的說明,好像是在傳達某種的難以置信,用來描述主體的行為。這等於是預先假設,人的整個感覺的重新建構,一直是以移情作為支配的中心。

I will not go any further because this double semantic mapping seems to me to be adequate for the moment. We cannot, of course, remain satisfied with this, since our aim is to approach the concept of the transference. This concept is determined by the function it has in a particular praxis. This concept directs the way in which patients are treated. Conversely, the way in which they are treated governs the concept.

這一點我就不必再多所贅言,因為我認為移情語意的內涵目前就已經不言而喻。當然,我們不是這樣就心滿意足,因為我們的目標是要處理移情這個觀念。這個觀念由它在特殊的對象所具有的功能來決定。這個觀念引導我們如何治療病人的方式。在另一方面,病人被治療的方式,又影響到這個觀念的內容。

It might seem to settle the question at the outset if we could decide whether or not the transference is bound up with analytic practice, whether it is a product, not to say an artefact, of analytic practice. Ida Macalpine, one of the many authors who have been led to express their opinions on the transference,
has carried as far as possible the attempt to articulate the transference in this direction. Whatever her very stubborn person—let me say at once that I cannot, in any sense, accept this extreme position.

假如我們能夠決定,移情是否跟精神分析的做法有密切關係,不論是精神分析的情境產物,或是情不自禁,那麼這個問題從一開頭就可看出端倪。很多作者曾經在某些情境下不得不表達對於移情的意見,艾達、瑪卡賓就是其中一位。她斬釘截鐵以這樣的方式清楚表達。不管她是如何擇情固執,我要馬上說,無論如何,我無法接受她這種極端的立場。

In any case, approaching the question in this way does not settle it. Even if we must regard the transference as a product of the analytic situation, we may say that this situation cannot create the phenomenon in its entirety, and that, in order to produce it, there must be, outside the analytic situation,
possibilities already present to which it will give their perhaps unique composition.

無論如何,以這種方式處理移情的問題,並沒有完全解決。即使我們必須將移情視為一種精神分析情境的產物,我們還是要說,這種情境並不必然會產生這種現象。而且,為了產生移情,除了精神分析情境外,還必須要有已經先存在的可能性,移情才可能水到渠成。

This in no way excludes the possibility, where no analyst is in view, that there may be, properly speaking, transference effects that may be structured exactly like the gamut of transference phenomena in analysis. It is simply that, in discovering these effects, analysis will make it possible to give them an experimental model that need not necessarily be at all different from the model I shall call the natural one. So to bring out the transference in analysis, where it acquires its structural foundations, may very well be the only way of introducing the universality of the application of this concept. It should be enough, then, to open up this package in the sphere of analysis and, more especially, of the doxa that goes with it.

這種說法絲毫沒有排除,在沒有精神分析師在現場的地方,移情印象,貼切地說,仍然有存在的可能。移情印象的架構可能確實就像是精神分析的全部移情現象。只是在發現這些移情印象時,精神分析讓它們有試探接近的機會。這跟我們所謂的自然移情的模式,絲毫沒有什麼兩樣。所以,探討出精神分析的移情,在它要求有結構基礎的地方,很可能是唯一的方法,來介紹移情這個觀念的適用是普遍存在的。因此,我們只要打開精神分析領域的這個包裹內容及附帶的價值理念,移情的觀念就應該真相大白。

This, after all, is a truism. Nevertheless, it is a rough indication worth making as a start.

畢竟,這是老生常談。可是,凡事起頭難,值得我們一窺究竟。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

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