自我的科技 02

Technologies of the Self 自我的科技

Michel Foucault 傅柯

Summary 結語

There are several reasons why “Know yourself” has obscured “Take care of yourself”. First, there has been a profound transformation in the moral principles of Western society. We find it difficult to base rigorous morality and austere principles on the precept that we should give ourselves more care than anything else in the world. We are more inclined to see taking care of ourselves as an immorality, as a means of escape from all possible rules. We inherit the tradition of Christian morality which makes self-renunciation the condition for salvation. To know oneself was paradoxically the way to self-renunciation.

有好幾個理由,為什麼「了解自己」模糊掉「照顧自己」。首先,西方社會的道德原理曾歷經深刻變化。我們很難將有活力而嚴峻的原則,立基於我們應該照顧自己勝於世上其它事物的教導上。我們反而更傾向於看待照顧自己是不道德,認為是至自私地逃避各種規範的途徑。我們繼承基督教道德的傳統,將自我克制視為救贖的條件。了解自己很弔詭地導致自我克制。

We also inherit a secular tradition which respects external law as the basis for morality. How then can respect for the self be the basis for morality? We are the inheritors of a social morality which seeks the rules for acceptable behavior in relations with others. Since the sixteenth century, criticism of established morality has been undertaken in the name of the importance of recognizing and knowing the self. Therefore, it is difficult to see concern with oneself as compatible with morality. “Know thyself” has obscured “Take care of yourself” because our morality, a morality of asceticism, insists that the self is that which one can reject.

我們也繼承一種世俗的傳統,尊重外在的法律當著道德的基礎。那麼,對於自我的尊重如何才能成為道德的基礎?我們是社會道德的繼承者,尋求規範作為跟別人相處的可接受的行為。自從十六世紀以來,曾有人以認識自己及照顧自己的重要性為名,從事批判約定成俗的道德。「了解自己」曾經模糊掉「照顧自己」,因為我們的道德是一種禁慾的道德,堅持自我是我們能夠摒棄的東西。

The second reason is that, in theoretical philosophy from Descartes to Husserl, knowledge of the self (the thinking subject) takes on an ever-increasing importance as the first step in the theory of knowledge.

第二個理由是,從笛卡爾到胡賽爾的理論科學,了解自我(沉思的自我)變得越來越加重要,作為知識理論的第一步。

To summarize: There has been an inversion between the hierarchy of the two principles of antiquity, “Take care of yourself” and “Know thyself”. In Greco-Roman culture knowledge of oneself appeared as the consequence of taking care of yourself. In the modern world, knowledge of oneself constitutes the fundamental principle.

結論:自古以降,「照顧自我」跟「了解自我」這兩種原則的上下階層曾歷經顛覆。在希臘及羅馬文化,了解自我出現當著是照顧自我的結果。在現代世界,了解自我則組成基本的原則。

II

The first philosophical elaboration of the concern with taking care of oneself that I wish to consider is found in Plato’s Alcibiades . The date of its writing is uncertain, and it may be a spurious Platonic dialogue. It is not my intention to study dates but to point the principal features of the care of self which is the center of the dialogue.

我心目中所嚮往的關懷照顧自我的哲學,在柏拉圖的阿希比底思中可找到。其寫作日期已無可考,可能是柏拉圖對話錄的偽作。考證其日期並非我的意圖,我只是想指出,對話錄的核心思想是以照顧自我作為主要特徵。

The Neoplatonists in the third or fourth century A.D. show the significance given to this dialogue and the importance it assumed in the classical tradition. They wanted to organize Plato’s dialogues as pedagogy and as the matrix for encyclopedic knowledge. They considered Alcibiades to be the first dialogue of Plato, the first to be read, the first to be studied. It was arche. In the second century Albinus said that every gifted young man who wanted to stand apart from politics and practice virtue should study the Alcibiades. It provided the point of departure and a program for all Platonic philosophy. “Taking care of oneself” was its first principle. I would like to analyze the care of self in the Alcibiades in terms of three aspects.

紀元前第三或第四世紀的新柏拉圖學派主張,我們應該重視這本對話錄及其在古典傳統中的地位。他們要整理柏拉圖的對話錄作為教學錄,當著是百科全書的基礎。他們認為阿希比底思是柏拉圖對話錄的第一章,首先應該讀,首先應該研究。那是開門見山。在第二世紀,阿希那思說,每位青年才俊,若不想從事政治,而想從事品德,則應該研習阿希比底思。此章提供一個出發點,可飽覽全部柏拉圖哲學。「照顧自我」是其第一原則。我想要以三個面向分析阿希比底思的照顧自我。

1. How is this question introduced into the dialogue? What are the reasons Alcibiades and Socrates are brought to the notion of taking care of one’s self? Alcibiades is about to begin his public and political life. He wishes to speak before the people and be all powerful in the city. He is not satisfied with his traditional status, with the privileges of his birth and heritage. He wishes to gain personal power over all others both inside and outside the city. At this point of intersection and transformation, Socrates intervenes and declares his love for Alcibiades. Alcibiades can no longer be the beloved; he must become a lover. He must become active in the political and the love game. Thus, there is a dialect between political and erotic discourse. Alcibiades makes his transition in specific ways in both politics and love.

第一、這個問題如何被介紹到對話錄?是什麼理由引導阿希比底思跟蘇格拉底想到照顧自我這個觀念?阿西比底思即將從事公共及政治生涯。他希望在公眾面前演說,在城邦擁有權勢。他並不滿足於他傳統的地位,跟出生即繼承的特權。他希望得到個人的權勢,統治城邦內外。在這個交會蛻變的時刻,蘇格拉底介入宣說他對於阿希比底思的敬愛。阿希比底思不再能夠以被愛為滿足,他必須要能愛別人。他必須積極參與政治及愛的遊戲。因此,政治跟性愛的論述於焉展開。阿希比底思在政治及愛兩方面,都明確地幡然改變。

An ambivalence is evident in Alcibiade’s political and erotic vocabulary. During his adolescence Alcibiades was desirable and had many admirers, but now that his beard is growing, his lovers disappear. Earlier, he had rejected them all in the bloom of his beauty becuase he wanted to be dominant, not dominated. He did not wish to be dominated by youth, but now he wants to dominate others. This is the moment Socrates appears, and he succeeds where others have failed: He will make Alcibiades submit, but in a different sense. They make a pact – Alcibiades will submit to his lover. Socrates, not in a physical but in a spiritual sense. The intersection of political ambition and philosophical love is “taking care of oneself”.

在阿希比底思的政治與性愛的詞彙,愛恨交加頗為顯著。青年時,阿希比底思受人仰慕,崇拜者甚眾,但是隨著他的鬍鬚增長,崇拜者卻消失。早先,他帥俊英發,對於崇拜者不屑一顧,因為他想要支配別人,而非受人支配。他不希望被年輕人牽著鼻子走,但是現在他想要支配別人。此時,蘇格拉底介入,他成功地做到別人做不到的地方。他使阿希比底思順服,但是順服的意義不同。他們有一個約定:阿希比底思將順服於他的所愛,蘇格拉底,不是生理上,而是精神上的意義。政治的企圖心,跟哲學的愛的交會點是:「照顧你自己」。

2. In that relationship, why should Alcibiades be concerned with himself, and why is Socrates concerned with that concern of Alcibiades? Socrates asks Alcibiades about his personal capacity and the nature of his ambition. Does he know the meaning of the rule of law, of justice or concord? Alcibiades clearly knows nothing. Socrates calls upon him to compare his education with that of the Persian and Spartan kings, his rivals. Spartan and Persian princes have teachers in Wisdom, Justice, Temperance, and Courage. By comparison, Alcibiades’ education is like that of an old, ignorant slave. He doesn’t know these things so he can’t apply himself to knowledge. But, says Socrates, it’s not too late. To help him gain the upper hand – to acquire techne – Alcibiades must apply himself, he must take care of himself. But Alcibiades doesn’t know to what he must apply himself. What is this knowledge he seeks? He is embarrassed and confused. Socrates calls upon him to take heart.

第二、在那種關係中,為什麼阿希比底思會關心到他自己?為什麼蘇格拉底要關心到阿希比底思的關心?蘇格拉底問阿西比底思的個人能力跟企圖心的特性。他知道法律規範、正義或盟約的意義嗎?阿西比底思顯然一無所知。蘇格拉底要求他比較他的教育跟敵國波斯及斯巴達國王的教育。斯巴達及波斯王子有智慧、正義、克己、及勇氣各門老師教導。比較起來,阿希比底思的教育,像是無知的老耄奴才的教育。他對於這些事情一無所知,所以他才無法致力於知識。但是,蘇格拉底說,為時尚未太晚。為了幫著他佔有優勢,為了得到技藝,阿希比底思必須全心專注,他必須照顧自己。但是阿希比底思不知道他必須專注致力於什麼。他所尋求的知識是什麼?他陷入尷尬跟困惑。蘇格拉底則要求他先銘記在心。

In 127d of the Alcibiades we find the first appearance of the phrase, epimelesthai sautou. Concern for the self always refers to an active political and erotic state. Epimelesthai expresses something much more serious than the simple fact of paying attention. It involves various things: taking pains with one’s holdings and one’s health. It is always a real activity and not just attitude. It is used in reference to the activity of a farmer tending his fields, his cattle, and his house, or to the job of the king in taking care of his city and citizens, or to the worship of ancestors or gods, or as a medical term to signify the fact of caring. It is highly significant that the concern for the self in Alcibiades is directly related to a defective pedagogy, one which concerns political ambition and a specific moment of life.

在阿西比底思的127頁,我們發現這個詞句「關懷自我」首次出現。對於自我的關懷總是提到積極的政治及性愛的狀態。關懷表達不僅僅是注意,而是更加嚴肅。它牽涉到各種事情:努力維護財物及自己的健康。它總是一種真實的活動,而不僅僅是態度。農夫照顧他的田地、家畜及房屋,國王照顧城邦及臣民,或崇拜祖先跟眾神,都是關懷活動的應用,或是當著醫療的用詞,用於表達關心的事實。我們應該重視的是,阿希比底思對於自我的關懷跟教導方式的不足密切關聯,因為他只關心到政治的企圖心及人生的某一特定時刻。

3. The rest of the text is devoted to an analysis of this notion of epimelesthai, “taking pains with oneself”. It is divided into two questions: What is this self of which one has to take care. and of what does that care consist? First, what is the self (129b)? Self is a reflective pronoun, and it has two meanings. Auto means “the same”, but it also conveys the notion of identity. The latter meaning shifts the question from “What is this self?” to “What is the plateau on which I shall find my identity?”

第三、其餘的文本專注於關懷自我,也就是「費心於自己」這個觀念。這觀念可區分為二:我們必須照顧的自我是什麼及照顧包含那些?先談,何謂自我?自我是一個反身代名詞,意義有二。自身意思是相同,但是也傳達認同的觀念。第二個觀念轉移「何謂自我」這個問題,到「我在何處平台可找到認同」?

Alcibiades tries to find the self in a dialectical movement. When you take care of the body, you don’t take care of the self. The self is not clothing, tools, or possessions. It is to be found in the principle which uses these tools, a principle not of the body but of the soul. You have to worry about your soul – that is the principle activity of caring for yourself. The care of the self is the care of the activity and not the care of the soul-assubstance.

阿希比底思設法在辯證法中找到自我。當你照顧身體,你沒有照顧到自我。自我不是衣服、工具或財產。它應該在使用這些工具的原理的地方尋找,不是身體的原理,而是靈魂的原理。你必須要擔心你的靈魂,那是照顧自己的原理活動。自我的照顧是原理活動的照顧,而不是靈魂虛無飄渺的照顧。

The second question is: How must we take care of this principle of activity, the soul? Of what does this care consist? One must know of what the soul consists. The soul cannot know itself except by looking at itself in a similar element, a mirror. Thus, it must contemplate the divine element. In this divine contemplation, the soul will be able to discover rules serve as a basis for behavior and political action. The effort of the soul to know itself is the principle on which just political action can be founded, and Alcibiades will be a good politicians insofar as he contemplates his soul in the divine element.

第二個問題是:我們必須如何照顧活動的原理,也就是靈魂?這個照顧包含什麼?我們必須知道這個靈魂是什麼。靈魂無法了解自己,除非以跟鏡子般相同的元素觀照自己。因此,靈魂必須沉思神聖的元素。在神祇的沉思中,靈魂將能夠發現到規範充當行為及政治舉動的基礎。靈魂的努力了解自己,就是公正的政治舉動賴以建立的原理。只要阿希比底思在神祇的元素中沉思,他將是位好的政治家。

Often the discussion gravitates around and is phrased in terms of the Delphic principle, “Know yourself”. To take care of oneself consists of knowing oneself. Knowing oneself becomes the object of the quest of concern for self. Being occupied with oneself and political activities are linked. The dialogue ends when Alcibiades knows he must take care of himself by examining his soul.

這個討論往往繞著太陽神廟的原理「了解自己」打轉及表達。照顧自己包含了解自己。了解自己變成關懷自我的追求的目標。專注於自我跟政治的活動是密不可分。對話錄的終了,阿希比底思了解到,他必須以審查自己的靈魂照顧自己。

This early text illuminates the historical background of the precept “taking care of oneself” and sets out four main problems that endure throughout antiquity, although the solutions offered often differ from those in Plato’s Alcibiades.

這個早期的文本闡明「照顧自己」這個教導的歷史背景,展開了四個貫穿古今的主要的問題,雖然解決方式,跟柏拉圖的阿希比底思的解決方式,大不相同。

First, there is the problem of the relation between being occupied with oneself and political activity. In the later Hellenistic and imperial periods, the question is presented in an alternative way: When is it better to turn away from political activity to concern oneself with oneself?

首先,專注於自己跟政治活動之間的關係的問題。在希臘晚期跟帝國時期,這個問題輪番被提出。何時我們最好脫離政治活動,專注於自己?

Second, there is a problem of the relationship between being occupied with oneself and pedagogy. For Socrates, occupying oneself is the duty of a young man, but later in the Hellenistic period it is seen as a permanent duty of one’s whole life.

其次,專注於自己跟教導之間的關係的問題。對於蘇格拉底而言,專注於自己是一位年輕人的責任,但是後來,在希臘時期,它被看著是人一生永久的責任。

Third, there is a problem of the relationship between concern for oneself and the knowledge of oneself. Plato gave priority to the Delphic maxim, “Know yourself”. The privileged position of “Know yourself” is characteristic of all Platonists. Later, in the Hellenistic and Greco-Roman periods, this is reversed. The accent was not on the knowledge of the self but on the concern with oneself. The latter was given an autonomy and even a pre-eminence as a philosophical issue.

第三,關懷自己跟了解自己之間的關係的問題。柏拉圖將太陽神廟的箴言「了解自己」列為優先順序。所有柏拉圖學派的特色就是「了解自己」具有特權地位。後來,在希臘跟羅馬時期,這種優位才倒轉過來。重點不再是了解自己,而是關懷自己。後者被給予自主權,甚至優先作為哲學的議題。

Fourth, there is the problem of the relationship between the care of the self and philosophical love, of the relation to the master.

第四,照顧自己跟哲學愛智之間,也就是主從之間的關係的問題。

In the Hellenistic and imperial periods, the Socratic notion of “taking care of oneself” became a common, universal philosophical theme. “Care of the self” was accepted by Epicurus and his followers, by the Cynics, and by such Stoics as Seneca, Rufus, and Galen. The Pythagoreans gave attention to the notion of an ordered life in common. This theme of taking care of oneself was not abstract advice but a widespread activity, a network of obligations and services to the soul. Following Epicurus himself, the Epicureans believed that its never too late to occupy oneself with oneself. The Stoics say you must attend to the self, “retire into the self and stay there.” Lucian parodied the notion. It was an extremely widespread activity and it brought about competition between rhetoricians and those who turned toward themselves, particularly over the question of the master.

在希臘及帝國時期,蘇格拉抵「照顧自己」的觀念,成為共同及普及性的哲學主題。伊璧鳩魯跟其隨從、犬儒學派、及在西尼卡、盧法思和嘉倫的禁欲學派,都接受「照顧自己」的說法。畢達哥拉斯學派也注意到這個大家公認的有條理的生活。照顧自己不是抽象的勸告,而是廣泛的活動,有一套責任跟服務的網絡給靈魂。伊璧鳩魯學派追隨其大師之後,相信專注於自己永不嫌太晚。禁欲學派說,你必須注意到自己,「隱退到自我,並停留在那裡」。盧西安模仿此觀念。這是極為普遍的活動,甚至還導致修辭學家跟專注自我照顧者的爭辯,特別是有關何者是主從的問題。

There were charlatans, of course. But certain individuals took it seriously. It was generally acknowledged that it was good to be reflective, at least briefly. Pliny advises a friend to set aside a few moments a day, or several weeks or months, for a retreat into himself. This was an active leisure – to study, to read, to prepare for misfortune or death. It was a meditation and a preparation.

當然,野狐禪混跡其間勢所難免。但是某些人可是當真看待。大家所公認的是,能夠反省,即使是片刻都是好的。普林尼勸告一位朋友,每天、或幾週、或幾個月,撥出一些時刻隱退到自己。去從事積極的休閒,去研究、閱讀、替災難或死亡的來臨預做心理準則。這是一種沉思,一種準備。

Writing was also important in the culture of taking care of oneself. One of the main features of taking care involved taking notes on oneself to be reread, writing treatises and letters to friends to help them, and keeping notebooks in order to reactivate for oneself the truths on needed. Socrate’s letters are an example of this self exercise

在照顧自己的文化,寫作也很重要。照顧自己的主要特色,牽涉到記錄自己,為了受人賞讀,寫作論文及信件給朋友幫助他們,讀書剳記,以便可以溫故知新,了解自己真正所需。蘇格拉底的信件,就是這個自我演練的範本。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

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