道德地質學 01

道德地質學 01 雄伯譯

A Thousand Plateau by Deleuze and Gattarie
德勒茲及瓜達里:千高台

3. 10,000 B. C: The Geology of Morals
第三章:紀元前一萬年的道德地質學

(Who Does the Earth Think It Is?)
(地球認為自己是誰?)

Double Articulation 雙重表達

The same Professor Challenger who made the Earth scream with his pain machine, as described by Arthur Conan Doyle, gave a lecture after mixing several textbooks on geology and biology in a fashion befitting his simian disposition.

偵探小說作者柯南、道爾曾描述過一位張廉吉教授,用一台他的拷問機器,逼使地球尖叫。這位教授以其特有的人猿性情的方式,綜貫好幾本地質學及生物學的教科書,發表演講。

He explained that the Earth—the Deterritorialized, the Glacial, the giant Molecule—is a body without organs.

他解釋說:解除轄域,冰河期,及大分子的地球,是沒有器官的身體。

This body without organs is permeated by unformed, unstable matters, by flows in all directions, by free intensities or nomadic singularities, by mad or transitory particles.

這個沒有器官的身體瀰漫著沒有形式的不穩定物質,朝四面八方流動,激情任意不定,分子狂飃倏忽,有著逐水草而居的遊牧特質。

That, however, was not the question at hand. For there simultaneously occurs upon the earth a very important, inevitable phenomenon that is beneficial in many respects and unfortunate in many others: stratification.

可是,這個並不是我們目前要討論的問題。因為在這個地球上同時發生一件重大的無可避免的現象,許多方面是有利益的,可是不幸的,在其它方面,形成階層。

Strata are Layers, Belts. They consist of giving form to matters, of imprisoning intensities or locking singularities into systems of resonance and redundancy, of producing upon the body of the earth molecules large and small and organizing them into molar aggregates.

階層就是層層纏繞。階層組成是因為物質擁有形式,激情被囚禁,或獨特性被封鎖成為拾人牙慧,在地球上產生的大大小小的分子,並且組織成為分子聚落。

Strata are acts of capture, they are like “black holes” or occlusions striving to seize whatever comes within their reach.

階層是捉取的行動。像是「黑洞」或吸納器,設法攫取任何進入他們範圍的東西。

They operate by coding and territorialization upon the earth; they proceed simultaneously by code and by territoriality.

他們的運作方式是將地球符碼化及轄域化;同時又符碼再符碼,轄域再轄域,層層繼續下去。

The strata are judgments of God; stratification in general is the entire system of the judgment of God (but the earth, or the body without organs, constantly eludes that judgment, flees and becomes destratified, decoded, deterritorialized).

階層就是上帝的判決,整體階層就是上帝判決的整個系統(可是,地球或沒有器官的身體,卻又不斷地逃避那個判決,逃離而成為解除階層,解除符碼,解除轄域)。

Challenger quoted a sentence he said he came across in a geology textbook. He said we needed to learn it by heart because we would only be in a position to understand it later on: “A surface of stratification is a more compact plane of consistency lying between two layers.”

張廉吉教授引述一句他在地質學教科書偶然看到的句子。他說我們需要先記背來,日後自然就會了解:「階層的表面是兩個層面之間,一個更加緊密的光滑層面。」

The layers are the strata. They come at least in pairs, one serving as substratum for the other. The surface of stratification is a machinic assemblage distinct from the strata.

這些層面就是階層。他們至少都是成雙成對,互為對方的次階層。階層的表面是機械般的裝配,不同於階層。

The assemblage is between two layers, between two strata; on one side it faces the strata (in this direction, the assemblage is an inter stratum), but the other side faces something else, the body without organs or plane of consistency (here, it is a metastratum). In effect, the body without organs is itself the plane of consistency, which becomes compact or thickens at the level of the strata.

裝配處於兩個層面之間,兩個階層之間,一邊面向著階層(朝這個方向,裝配是內階層),但是另一邊面向別的東西,沒有器官的身體或光滑的平面(在此,裝配是虛擬階層)。事實上,沒有器官的身體本身就是光滑的平面,在階層的層面上變得更加緊密或濃密。

God is a Lobster, or a double pincer, a double bind. Not only do strata come at least in pairs, but in a different way each stratum is double (it itself has several layers). Each stratum exhibits phenomena constitutive of double articulation. Articulate twice, B-A, BA.

上帝是大龍蝦,有一對鰲鉗或一對夾鉗。階層不但成雙成對,而且每個階層都是雙層,儘管方式各異(它本身就有好幾道層面)。每個階層都展示雙重表達所組成的現象,例如是非、善惡等二元對立。

This is not at all to say that the strata speak or are language based. Double articulation is so extremely variable that we cannot begin with a general model, only a relatively simple case.

這並不是說,階層會言說,或是以語言為基礎。雙重表達變數很多,我們無法一開頭就豎立一般模式,那是較簡單的說法。

The first articulation chooses or deducts, from unstable particleflows, metastable molecular or quasi-molecular units (substances) upon which it imposes a statistical order of connections and successions (forms).

第一層表達是減除或扣除,從不穩定的分子流動,虛穩定或假分子的單位,因為這些單位有著統計的連接及連續形式的秩序。

The second articulation establishes functional, compact, stable structures (forms), and constructs the molar compounds in which these structures are simultaneously actualized (substances).

第二層表達建立功用性的緊密的穩定結構形式,然後建立分子組合,讓這些結構同時可以實現物質。

In a geological stratum, for example, the first articulation is the process of “sedimentation,” which deposits units of cyclic sediment according to a statistical order: flysch, with its succession of sandstone and schist.

例如,在地質的階層,第一層表達是「渣滓」的過程,依照統計的秩序,沉澱循環渣滓的單位:積層岩有沙岩跟片岩的疊積。

The second articulation is the “folding” that sets up a stable functional structure and effects the passage from sediment to sedimentary rock.

第二層表達是「折疊」,建立起穩定的功用性結構,然後形成從渣滓到渣滓岩的通路。

It is clear that the distinction between the two articulations is not between substances and forms. Substances are nothing other than formed matters. Forms imply a code, modes of coding and decoding.

顯然,雙重表達之間的區別不是在於物質及形式。物質僅僅就是組成的物料。形式意味著符碼,符碼化及解除符碼的模式。

Substances as formed matters refer to territorialities and degrees of territorialization and deterritorialization. But each articulation has a code and a territorially;
therefore each possesses both form and substance.

物質作為組成的物料,涉及到轄域,轄域的程度,及解除轄域。但是每個表達都有符碼跟轄域,因此各擁有形式跟物質。

For now, all we can say is that each articulation has a corresponding type of segmentarity or multiplicity: one type is supple, more molecular, and merely ordered; the other is more rigid, molar, and organized.

至於現在,我們所能說的是,每個表達都有相對應的渣滓或多重性:一種是鬆散的分子秩序,另一種則是嚴密的分子組織。

Although the first articulation is not lacking in systematic interactions, it is in the second articulation in particular that phenomena constituting an overcoding are produced, phenomena of centering, unification, totalization, integration, hierarchization, and finalization.

雖然系統的互動並不缺乏第一種表達,但是產生形成過度符碼的現象,產生中央集權、大一統、一體化、合併、階層化、及最後上面裁決等現象,特別是發生在第二種表達。

Both articulations establish binary relations between their respective segments. But between the segments of one articulation and the segments of the other there are biunivocal relationships obeying far more complex laws.

兩種表達都建立各自的渣滓之間的二元關係。但是在一種表達的渣滓跟另一種表達的渣滓之間,有著雙重的單一關係,遵照更加複雜的法則。

The word “structure” may be used to designate the sum of these relations and relationships, but it is an illusion to believe that structure is the earth’s last word.

「結構」此字可以用來指明這些二元關係及雙重單一關係的數目,但是若以為用結構就可以將地球定調,那可是妄想。

Moreover, it cannot be taken for granted that the distinction between the two articulations is always that of the molecular and the molar.

而且,我們不能理所當然地認為,兩種表達之間的區別總是分子跟粒子之間的區別。

He skipped over the immense diversity of the energetic, physicochemical, and geological strata. He went straight to the organic strata, or the existence of a great organic stratification.

能源階層,物理跟化學階層,及地質階層廣裘多樣,我們暫時避而不論,直接到達有機體階層,或有機體階層的存有地帶。

The problem of the organism—how to “make” the body an organism—is once again a problem of articulation, of the articulatory relation.

有機體的問題,也就是如何使身體成為有機體,在此再一次成為是表達的問題,表達的關係的問題。

The Dogons, well known to the professor, formulate the problem as follows: an organism befalls the body of the smith, by virtue of a machine or machinic assemblage that stratifies it.

張廉吉教授耳熟能詳的道元禪宗描述這個問題如下:有機體落在鐵匠的身體,憑藉機器或機械的裝配,使它形成階層。

“The shock of the hammer and the anvil broke his arms and legs at the elbows and knees, which until that moment he had not possessed. In this way, he received the articulations specific to the new human form that was to spread across the earth, a form dedicated to work…. His arm became folded with a view to work.”

「鐵鎚及鐵鉆的猛擊,使他的手臂跟腳在手肘及膝蓋處斷裂,雖然在那個時刻之前,他並未擁有手肘及膝蓋。以這種方式,他接收到新的人類形體特有的表達,他新的人類形體將遍佈地球,是個致力於工作的形體。為了工作,他的手臂變得可以彎伸。」

It is obviously only a manner of speaking to limit the articulatory relation to the bones. The entire organism must be considered in relation to a double articulation, and on different levels.

將表達的關係限制於骨頭,顯然只是言說的方式之一。整個有機體必須被認為是在不同層次上,跟雙重表達的關係。

First, on the level of morphogenesis: on the one hand, realities of the molecular type with aleatory relations are caught up in crowd phenomena or statistical aggregates determining an order (the protein fiber and its sequence or segmentarity); on the other hand, these aggregates themselves are taken up into stable structures that “elect” stereoscopic compounds, form organs, functions, and regulations, organize molar mechanisms, and even distribute centers capable of overflying crowds, overseeing mechanisms, utilizing and repairing tools, “overcoding” the aggregate (the folding
back on itself of the fiber to form a compact structure; a second kind of segmentarity). Sedimentation and folding, fiber and infolding.

首先,在器官形態發生的層次:在一方面,分子類型偶然關係的現實,受困於決定秩序的群體現象或統計聚落(蛋白質纖維及其基因系列或沉澱);在另一方面,這些聚落本身也凝聚成為穩定的結構,結構則精選立體的組合,形成器官、功用跟規則,組織分子機構,甚至分派各處中心,能夠超越群眾,監督機構,使用及修復工具,並使聚落「過度符碼化」(纖維本身可以折疊,形成緊密的結構,第二種沉澱)。沉澱及折疊,纖維及再折疊。

On a different level, the cellular chemistry presiding over the constitution of proteins also operates by double articulation.

在不同層次上,管轄蛋白質成份的細胞化學,也以雙重表達運作。

This double articulation is internal to the molecular, it is the articulation between small and large molecules, a segmentarity by successive modifications and polymerization.

雙重表達是分子的內部,是大小分子之間的表達,是連續修改及聚合的沉澱。

“First, the elements taken from the medium are combined through a series of transformations.. . .All this activity involves hundreds of chemical reactions.

首先,從媒介中得來的元素,透過一系列的轉換組合起來。所有這個活動牽涉到數百個化學反應。

But ultimately, it produces a limited number of small compounds, a few dozen at most. In the second stage of cellular chemistry, the small molecules are assembled to produce larger ones.

但是最後,它產生少數的小組合,充其量是幾什個。在細胞化學的第二階段,小分子被吸收來產生更大的分子。

It is the polymerization of units linked end-to-end that forms the characteristic chains of macromolecules.

這些單位的首尾聚合,形成大分子的特有連鎖。

. .. The two stages of cellular chemistry, therefore, differ in their function, products and nature.

因此,細胞化學的兩個階段,在他們的功用,產品及特性方面,都大不相同。

The first carves out chemical motifs; the second assembles them. The first forms compounds that exist only temporarily, for they are intermediaries on the path of biosynthesis; the second constructs stable products.

第一階段刻劃出化學主題,第二階段裝配他們。第一階段形成暫時存在的組合,因為他們在生物合成的過程是中介,第二階段才建造穩定的產品。

The first operates by a series of different reactions; the second by repeating the same reaction.”4

第一階段以一系列的不同反應運作,第二階段則以重複相同反應運作。

There is, moreover, a third level, upon which cellular chemistry itself depends.

而且,還有第三階段,那是細胞化學所依賴的。

It is the genetic code, which is in turn inseparable from a double segmentarity or a double articulation, this time between two types of independent molecules: the sequence of protein units and the sequence of nucleic units, with binary relations between units of the same type and biunivocal relationships between units of different types.

基因符碼跟雙重沉澱或雙重表達互不可分,這一次是在兩種獨立的分子之間:蛋白質單位的系列,跟核子單位的系列,在相同種類得單位,有雙邊的關係,在不同種類的單位之間,有兩個單邊關係。

Thus there are always two articulations, two segmentarities, two kinds of multiplicity, each of which brings into play both forms and substances.

因此,總是有兩種表達,兩種沉澱,兩種多重性,每一種都運作到形式跟物質。

But the distribution of these two articulations is not constant, even within the same stratum.

但是這兩種表達的分配並不是固定的,即使是在相同的階層範圍。

The audience rather sulkily denounced the numerous misunderstandings,
misinterpretations, and even misappropriations in the professor’s presentation, despite the authorities he had appealed to, calling them his “friends.”

張廉吉教授演講時,聽眾相當慍怒地抨擊無數的誤解,誤導,甚至誤用,儘管他訴諸權威人士,跟他們平起平坐。

Even the Dogons . . . And things would presently get worse.

即使是跟道元禪宗。看來情況會更加惡化。

The professor cynically congratulated himself on taking his pleasure from behind, but the offspring always turned out to be runts and wens, bits and pieces, if not stupid vulgarizations.

教授自我解嘲地慶幸自己有後起之秀,但後續者卻總證明是並非棟樑之材,即使不是委瑣鄙陋,也是不堪造就。

Besides, the professor was not a geologist or a biologist, he was not even a linguist, ethnologist, or psychoanalyst; what his specialty had been was long since forgotten.

除外,教授並非是地質學家或生物學家,甚至也不是語言學家,民族學者,或精神分析師;他的專業是什麼早已經為人遺忘。

In fact, Professor Challenger was double, articulated twice, and that did not make things any easier, people never knew which of him was present.

事實上,張廉吉教授是雙重身份,表達兩次。可是這樣說未必使事情更加明白,因為人們不知道,他表現的是哪一種身份。

He (?) claimed to have invented a discipline he referred to by various names: rhizomatics, stratoanalysis, schizoanalysis, nomadology, micropolitics, pragmatics, the science of multiplicities.

他(哪個他?)宣稱他曾經用不同名稱,提倡他所提到的學問:塊莖、階層分析,精神分裂分析、遊牧學、微小政治學、實用論、多重化學。

Yet no one clearly understood what the goals, method, or principles of this discipline were.

可是,沒有人清楚地瞭解這門學問的目標、方法、或原理是什麼。

Young Professor Alasca, Challenger’s pet student, tried hypocritically to defend him by explaining that on a given stratum the passage from one articulation to the other was easily verified because it was always accompanied by a loss of water, in
genetics as in geology, and even in linguistics, where the importance of the
“lost saliva” phenomenon is measured.

年輕的阿拉斯卡教授是張廉吉教授的得意門生,曾經假惺惺地替他辯護說,在某個階層,從一個表達到另一個表達的過程很容易被驗證,因為那總是伴隨著水份的損失。在基因學、地質學,甚至語言學,「唾液減損」現象的重要性,是可以測量出來。

Challenger took offense, preferring to cite his friend, as he called him, the Danish Spinozist geologist, Hjelmslev, that dark prince descended from Hamlet who also made language his concern, precisely in order to analyze its “stratification.”

張廉吉教授甚感不以為然,他寧可引述他的朋友,專擅史賓諾莎哲學的丹麥地質學家,希姆列夫:黑暗王子的先行者是莎士比亞名劇中的主人翁哈姆雷特,因為他對於語言耿耿於懷,主要是為了要分析語言的「階層」。

Hjelmslev was able to weave a net out of the notions of matter, content and
expression, form and substance.

希姆列夫能夠將物料、內涵及表達、形式及物質等觀念,編織成一家之言的網絡。

These were the strata, said Hjelmslev. Now this net had the advantage of breaking with the form-content duality, since there was a form of content no less than a form of expression.

「階層無所不在。」希姆列夫說。目前,這個網絡的優點是可以中斷形式跟內涵的雙重性,因為內涵有形式,正如表達有形式。

Hjelmslev’s enemies saw this merely as a way of rebaptizing the discredited notions of the signified and signifier, but something quite different was actually going on.

希姆列夫的反對者則將此僅僅視為是,符號旨跟符號具的過時觀念,重新包裝命名,但是實際上,我們發現裡面另有新義卓見存焉。

Despite what Hjelmslev himself may have said, the net is not linguistic in scope or origin (the same must be said of double articulation: if language has a specificity of its own, as it most certainly does, that specificity consists neither in double articulation nor in Hjelmslev’s net, which are general characteristics of strata).

儘管希姆列夫自己曾經說過,這個網絡的範圍或起源並非是語言學(此說可應用到雙重表達:即使語言有自己的特性,它確實是有,但是那個獨特性,既不在於雙重表達,也不在於希姆列夫的網絡,後者是階層的一般特性。)

He used the term matter for the plane of consistency or Body without Organs, in other words, the unformed, unorganized, nonstratified, or destratified body and all its flows: subatomic and submolecular particles, pure intensities, prevital and prephysical free singularities.

他使用物料這個術語來描述光滑的平面或沒有器官的身體,換言之,沒有形式,,沒有組織,沒有階層,或除掉階層的身體,及所有流動的次原子,次分子的粒子,純粹的張力,尚未有生命力及形式的自由的特性。

He used the term content for formed matters, which would now have to be considered
from two points of view: substance, insofar as these matters are “chosen,” and form, insofar as they are chosen in a certain order (substance and form of content).

他使用內涵這個術語來描述有形體的物料,因為有兩個觀點非考慮到物料不可:物質會牽涉到所「選擇」的這些物料,形式會牽涉到在某個秩序的選擇(物質與內涵的形式)。

He used the term expression for functional structures, which would also have to be considered from two points of view: the organization of their own specific form, and substances insofar as they form compounds (form and content of expression).

他使用表達這個術語來描述功用的結構,因為有兩個觀點非得考量結構不可:他們自己明確形式的組織,以及形成組合牽涉到的物質(形式跟表達的內涵)。

A stratum always has a dimension of the expressible or of expression serving as the basis for a relative invariance; for example, nucleic sequences are inseparable from a relatively invariant expression by means of which they determine the compounds, organs, and functions of the organism.

階層總是有可表達或表達充當相對變數的向量。例如,核子系列跟相對變數的表達密不可分,因為憑藉後者,核子系列才能決定組合、器官、及有機體的功用。

To express is always to sing the glory of God.

表達總是讚揚上帝的榮耀。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

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