一狼或多狼04

一狼或多狼 04

A Thousand Plateau by Deleuze and Guattari

德勒茲及瓜達里:千高台

One or Several Wolves

一狼或多狼

Thus it does not suffice to attribute molar multiplicities and mass machines to the preconscious, reserving another kind of machine or multiplicity for the unconscious.

因此,將粒子的多重性及諸眾機器歸咎於前意識,保留另一種機器或多重性給無意識,

是難於自圓其說。

For it is the assemblage of both of these that is the province of the unconscious, the way in which the former condition the latter, and the latter prepare the way for the former, or elude them or return to them: the libido suffuses everything.

因為這兩種裝配都在無意識的領域,前者制約後者,後者替前者做預備,或是逃避他們或回到他們:生命力充溢一切。

Keep everything in sight at the same time—that a social machine or an organized mass has a molecular unconscious that marks not only its tendency to decompose but also the current components of its very operation and organization; that any individual caught up in a mass has his/her own pack unconscious, which does not necessarily resemble the packs of the mass to which that individual belongs; that an individual or mass will live out in its unconscious the

masses and packs of another mass or another individual.

讓真相同時大白:其一,社會機器或有組織的諸眾有一個分子的無意識,不但標示它要瓦解的傾向,而且標示每個運作及組織的目前成份。其二,陷身於諸眾的任何個人,有他或她自己的群體無意識,未必跟諸眾的群體無意識相同,儘管個人是群體的一員。其三,個人或諸眾以自己的無意識,將會實現另一諸眾或另一個人的群體無意識。

What does it mean to love somebody? It is always to seize that person in a mass, extract

him or her from a group, however small, in which he or she participates, whether it be through the family only or through something else; then to find that person’s own packs, the multiplicities he or she encloses within himself or herself which may be of an entirely different nature.

愛上某個人是什麼意思?那就是在諸眾中攫住那個人,將他或她從群體中抽離出來,不管他或她歸屬的團體是多麼小,是否經由家庭或經由其它地方,然後找到那個人自己的群體,他或她包含在自己內部的多重性,這個多重性可能性質大不相同。

To join them to mine, to make them penetrate mine, and for me to penetrate the other person’s. Heavenly nuptials, multiplicities of multiplicities.

將他或她的多重性加入我的多重性,貫穿我的多重性,也讓我的多重性貫穿另一個人的多重性。多重性中的多重性,婚姻美滿像天堂。

Every love is an exercise in depersonalization on a body without organs yet to be formed, and it is at the highest point of this depersonalization that someone can be named, receives his or her family name or first name, acquires the most intense discernibility in the instantaneous apprehension of the multiplicities belonging to him or her, and to which he or she belongs.

每個愛情都是除掉個人化的運動,一個沒有器官的身體於焉形成。在除掉個人化的最高點,某個人被改姓都可以,改姓對方的姓,彼此你儂我儂,愛得難解難分時,馬上理解到屬於他或她,及他或她所歸屬的多重性

A pack of freckles on a face, a pack of boys speaking through the voice of a woman, a clutch of girls in Charlus’s voice, a horde of wolves in somebody’s throat, a multiplicity of anuses in the anus, mouth, or eye one is intent upon. We each go through so many bodies in each other.

幾許雀斑在臉上,一群男生講話娘娘腔,幾位女生幕後配音。某人是一群狼的喉舌。我們全神貫注他的肛門,嘴巴及眼睛,以為肛門的多重性在那裡。我們每個人都經歷過彼此的許多沒有器官的身體。

Albertine is slowly extracted from a group of girls with its own number, organization, code,

and hierarchy; and not only is this group or restricted mass suffused by an unconscious, but Albertine has her own multiplicities that the narrator, once he has isolated her, discovers on her body and in her lies—until the end of their love returns her to the indiscernible.

從一群有其號碼、組織、規矩及階層的少女中,慢慢選拔出艾波町。這團體或有限人數的諸眾不但無意識瀰漫,而且艾波町也有她自己的多重性。選拔者一但認為她與眾不同,就會在她身體及她的謊言,發現這個無意識及多重性,直到他們的激情消失,她又回到默默無聞。

Above all, it should not be thought that it suffices to distinguish the masses and exterior groups someone belongs to or participates in from the internal aggregates that person envelops in himself or herself.

尤其是,不要以為諸眾及某人所歸屬或參與的外在的團體,跟那個人在他或她自己內部所包含的內在群聚,有所區別,就能自圓其說。

The distinction to be made is not at all between exterior and interior, which are always relative, changing, and reversible, but between different types of multiplicities that coexist, interpenetrate, and change places— machines, cogs, motors, and elements that are set in motion at a given moment, forming an assemblage productive of statements: “I love you” (or

whatever).

這個區別根本不是在於外在或內在之間,因為那總是相對,改變,及可倒轉,而是在不同種類的多重性之間,在這裡,多重性共同存在,互相貫穿,改變位置,當機器,齒輪,馬達,及機件,在某個時刻會發動起來,組成裝配,產生陳述:「我愛你」(或類似的話)。

For Kafka, Felice is inseparable from a certain social machine, and, as a representative of the firm that manufactures them, from parlograph machines; how could she not belong to that organization in the eyes of Kafka, a man fascinated by commerce and bureaucracy?

對卡夫卡而言,費利思跟某個社交機器不可分開,也跟錄音機器不可分開,因為她是製造那些機器的公司的代言人。卡夫卡對商業跟官僚深惡痛絕,在其眼中,費利思怎麼可能不被那種組織所隸屬呢?

But at the same time, Felice’s teeth, her big carnivorous teeth, send her racing down other lines, into the molecular multiplicities of a becoming-dog, a becoming-jackal . ..

但是同時,費利思的牙齒,她的肉食牙齒,使她奔馳到其它行業,進入生成狗,生成豺狼的分子的多重性。

Felice is inseparable from the sign of the modern social machines belonging to her, from those belonging to Kafka (not the same ones), and from the particles, the little molecular machines, the whole strange becoming or journey Kafka will make and have her make

through his perverse writing apparatus.

費利思跟歸屬她的現代社交機器的符號不可分開,跟歸屬於卡夫卡的那些社交機器(性質不同)也不可分開,跟粒子,小分子機器,整個奇異的生成及旅行不可分開,因為卡夫卡由於自己怪僻的寫作機器,將會從事,也要她從事這整個奇異的生成及旅行。

There are no individual statements, only statement-producing machinic assemblages.

沒有個人的陳述,只有產生陳述的機器的裝配。

We say that the assemblage is fundamentally libidinal and unconscious. It is the unconscious in person.

我們說裝配基本上是生命力及無意識。裝配是個人的無意識。

For the moment, we will note that assemblages have elements (or multiplicities) of several kinds: human, social, and technical machines, organized molar machines; molecular

machines with their particles of becoming-inhuman; Oedipal apparatuses (yes, of course there are Oedipal statements, many of them); and counter-Oedipal apparatuses, variable in aspect and functioning.

目前,我們將會注意到,裝配有好幾種的元素(或多重性):人類、社會、及技術性的機器,有組織的粒子機器,有生成非人類粒子的分子機器;伊底普斯的機器(是的,當然是有伊底普斯的陳述,多得很),還有反伊底普斯的機器,型式及功用種類繁多。

We will go into it later. We can no longer even speak of distinct machines, only of types of interpenetrating multiplicities that at any given moment form a single machinic assemblage, the faceless figure of the libido.

我們以後再深入探討。我們甚至不再談到與眾不同的機器,我們只談到互相貫穿多重性的那幾種,在某個時刻,它們組成單一的機器裝配,生命力的無名角色。

Each of us is caught up in an assemblage of this kind, and we reproduce its statements

when we think we are speaking in our own name; or rather we speak in our own name when we produce its statement.

我們每個人都陷入這種的裝配,當我們以為是以自己之名說話時,我們是在複製它的陳述,要不然就是,當我們複製它的陳述時,我們以為是以自己之名在說話。

And what bizarre statements they are; truly, the talk of lunatics.

這些陳述是多麼的古怪!沒錯,跟瘋子的談話一般。

We mentioned Kafka, but we could just as well have said the Wolf-Man: a religious-military machine that Freud attributes to obsessional neurosis; an anal pack machine, an anal becoming- wolf or -wasp or -butterfly machine, which Freud attributes to the hysteric character; an Oedipal apparatus, which Freud considers the sole motor, the immobile motor that must be found everywhere; and a counter- Oedipal apparatus—incest with the sister, schizo-incest, or love with “people of inferior station”; and anality, homosexuality?—all that Freud sees only as Oedipal substitutes, regressions, and derivatives.

我們提到卡夫卡,但是我們本來大可提到狼人;一台宗教跟軍事的機器,佛洛伊德將它歸因於偏執的精神官能症,一台肛門的群體機器,一台肛門的生成狼、生成黃蜂、或生成蝴蝶的機器。佛洛伊德認為唯一的馬達,靜止不動的馬達,一定到處可找到,一台反伊底普斯的機器;跟妹妹亂倫,精神分裂的亂倫,或跟「降低身份」談戀愛,還有肛交,同性戀?所有這些,佛洛伊德都僅僅看著是伊底普斯的代替,倒退,及衍生。

In truth, Freud sees nothing and understands nothing. He has no idea what a libidinal

assemblage is, with all the machineries it brings into play, all the multiple loves.

事實上,佛洛伊德什麼都沒看到,什麼也不懂。他不知道生命力的裝配是什麼,儘管生命力運作所有的機器,所有多重的愛。

Of course, there are Oedipal statements. For example, Kafka’s story, “Jackals and Arabs,” is easy to read in that way: you can always do it, you can’t lose, it works every time, even if you understand nothing.

當然有伊底普斯的陳述:例如,卡夫卡的故事「胡狼及阿拉伯人」,用那種方式閱讀就很容易理解。你可以總是用那一套,不會有差錯,它每次都行得通,即使你什麼都不了解。

The Arabs are clearly associated with the father and the jackals with the mother; between the two, there is a whole story of castration represented by the rusty scissors.

阿拉伯人很明顯跟父親聯想在一起,胡狼則跟母親。其間,總是會有生銹的剪刀代表閹割的整個故事。

But it so happens that the Arabs are an extensive, armed, organized mass stretching across the entire desert; and the jackals are an intense pack forever launching into the desert following lines of flight or deterritorialization (“they are madmen, veritable madmen”); between the

two, at the edge, the Man of the North, the jackal-man.

但是,阿拉伯人是向外擴展,有武裝,有組織的諸眾,延伸過整個沙漠,而胡狼是激情的群體,永遠遵照逃離線或解轄域線,進入沙漠(他們是瘋子,道地的瘋子);在兩者之間,在邊緣,北邊的人,胡狼人。

And aren’t those big scissors the Arab sign that guides or releases jackal-particles, both to accelerate their mad race by detaching them from the mass and to bring them back to the mass, to tame them and whip them, to bring them around?

那些大剪刀不就是阿拉伯人引導或釋放胡狼的符號?一方面要以將他們跟諸眾隔離,來加速他們瘋狂的競賽,另一方面,又要將他們帶回諸眾,馴服他們,鞭打他們,使他們改邪歸正。

Dead camel: Oedipal food apparatus. Counter-Oedipal carrion apparatus: kill animals to eat, or eat to clean up carrion.

死去的駱駝:伊底普斯的食物機器,反伊底普斯的腐肉機器,為了吃而殺動物,或為了清理腐肉而去吃。

The jackals formulate the problem well: it is not that of castration but of “cleanliness” (propret’e, also “ownness”), the test of desert-desire.

胡狼可將這個問題表達得很清楚:這不是閹割,而是「清理」(原意是「擁有」)的問題,也就是沙漠跟欲望的考驗。

Which will prevail, mass territoriality or pack deterritorialization?

哪一個會戰勝?諸眾領域,還是群體解轄域?

The libido suffuses the entire desert, the body without organs on which the drama is played out.

生命力瀰漫整個沙漠,沒有器官的身體,在那裡演出人生百態。

There are no individual statements, there never are. Every statement is the product of a machinic assemblage, in other words, of collective agents of enunciation (take “collective agents” to mean not peoples or societies but multiplicities).

沒有個人的陳述,從來沒有。每個陳述都是機器裝配的產品,換言之,是表達的集體代理的產品(「集體代理」不是指人或社會,而是指多重性)。

The proper name (nom propre) does not designate an individual: it is on the contrary when the individual opens up to the multiplicities pervading him or her, at the outcome of the most severe operation of depersonalization, that he or she acquires his or her true proper name.

專有名詞並不是指定個人。相反的,當個人由於解消個人化,酣暢淋漓的結果,開展瀰漫自身的多重性,他或她就得到他或她自己真實的專有名詞。

The proper name is the instantaneous apprehension of a multiplicity.

專有名詞就是對於多重性的當下體悟。

The proper name is the subject of a pure infinitive comprehended as such in a field of intensity.

在激情領域,專有名詞被理解充當是純粹不定詞的主詞。

What Proust said about the first name: when I said Gilberte’s name, I had the impression that I was holding her entire body naked in my mouth.

普洛斯特如此說情侶的名子:當我說出「吉爾伯特」時,我的印象是,我好像將她整個身體赤裸地放在我的嘴唇裡。

The Wolf-Man, a true proper name, an intimate first name linked to the becomings, infinitives, and intensities of a multiplied and depersonalized individual.

狼人是道地的專有名詞,大家耳熟能詳的名子,跟生成,不定詞,及多重性及消除個人化的激情,密切相關。

What does psychoanalysis know about multiplication?

精神分析學對於多重性知道多少?

The desert hour when the dromedary becomes a thousand dromedaries snickering in the sky.

沙漠時刻!單峰駱駝變成一千隻單峰駱駝,在天空竊笑。

The evening hour when a thousand holes appear on the surface of the earth. Castration!

夜晚時刻!地球表面出現一千個的洞。閹割!

Castration! cries the psychoanalytic scarecrow, who never saw more than a hole, a father or a

dog where wolves are, a domesticated individual where there are wild multiplicities.

閹割!精神分析的稻草人驚叫起來,因為他平常看的洞只有一個,父親或狗的洞,在那裡狼是被人豢養的個人,在那裡多重性尚未開發。

We are not just criticizing psychoanalysis for having selected Oedipal statements exclusively.

我們不是因為精神分析學專門搞伊底普斯的陳述,才去批評它。

For such statements are to a certain extent part of a machinic assemblage, for which they could serve as correctional indexes, as in a calculation of errors.

因為這樣的陳述某個程度也是機器裝配的一部份,它們還能夠充當矯正的指引,如同在錯誤的演算時。

We are criticizing psychoanalysis for having used Oedipal enunciation to make patients believe they would produce individual, personal statements, and would finally speak in their own name.

我們批評精神分析學,是因為它使用伊底普斯的表達,使病人相信,他們將會產生個人的自我的陳述,最後還會以他們自己之名說出。

The trap was set from the start: never will the Wolf-Man speak.

從一開頭就機關重重;狼人將永遠開不了口。

Talk as he might about wolves, howl as he might like a wolf, Freud does not even listen; he glances at his dog and answers, “It’s daddy.”

佛洛伊德雖然會談到狼,雖然他也學狼嚎叫,可是他甚至連聽都不聽;他瞧一下他的狗,就回答說:「那是老爸」。

For as long as that lasts, Freud calls it neurosis; when it cracks, it’s psychosis.

在那樣的期間,佛洛伊德統稱它為精神官能症。但後來事實發現,那是變態狂。

The Wolf-Man will receive the psychoanalytic medal of honor for services rendered to the

cause, and even disabled veterans’ benefits.

狼人將會接受精神分析學的榮譽獎章,因為他替各種病因提供服務,甚至殘障退伍軍人都因此病因而獲益。

He could have spoken in his own name only if the machinic assemblage that was producing particular statements in him had been brought to light.

他本來還能夠以自己之名說話,假如產生有關他的特別陳述的機器的裝配,公開於世的話。

But there is no question of that in psychoanalysis: at the very moment the subject is persuaded that he or she will be uttering the most individual of statements, he or she is deprived of all basis for enunciation.

但在精神分析學,這是不可能的:因為就在主體被說服,他或她將會表達即使是最私密的陳述時,他或她就已經被剝奪所有表達的基礎。

Silence people, prevent them from speaking, and above all, when they do speak, pretend they haven’t said a thing: the famous psychoanalytic neutrality.

精神分析師是守密的人,阻止他們不能說。最重要的是,當他們一但說了,還要假裝他們什麼都沒說:精神分析師必須保持中立,這是眾所周知。

The Wolf-Man keeps howling: Six wolves! Seven wolves! Freud says, How’s that? Goats, you say? How interesting. Take away the goats and all you have left is a wolf, so it’s your father

狼人繼續嚎叫: 六隻狼! 七隻狼!佛洛伊德說,那又怎樣?山羊,你說呢?多麼有趣的事!假如你將山羊都帶走,你所剩餘的就是一隻狼,那就是你父親。

. . . That is why the Wolf-Man feels so fatigued: he’s left lying there with all his wolves in his throat, all those little holes on his nose, and all those libidinal values on his body without organs.

那就是為什麼狼人覺得如此疲乏;他被擺置在那裡,所有有關狼的陳述,鯁在喉嚨,所有的小洞在他的鼻子上,所有的那些生命力的價值,在他沒有器官的身體上。

The war will come, the wolves will become Bolsheviks, and the Wolf-Man will remain suffocated by all he had to say.

戰爭將會到來,狼將成為布爾希維克共產份子,而狼人,雖然有千言萬語,將始終克制。

All we will be told is that he became well behaved, polite, and resigned again, “honest and scrupulous.”

我們所能獲知的是,狼人將會恢復循規蹈矩,有禮貌,很溫順,「誠實而謹慎」。

In short, cured. He gets back by pointing out that psychoanalysis lacks a truly zoological vision: “Nothing can be more valuable for a young person than the love of nature and a comprehension of the natural sciences, in particular zoology.”

總之,狼人將會療癒。但也不諱言指出,精神分析學缺乏道地動物園的景象:「年輕人愛好大自然,理解自然科學,特別是動物園學,是應該值得重視的。」

雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

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