Archive for May, 2009

火的詩學 01

May 21, 2009

 

火的詩學

Fragments of A Poetics of Fire by Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

Empedocles 恩匹德克利斯

 

To meditate upon 沉思 Empedocles’ death atop Mount Etna is to promote a Poetics of Fire. The Image goes beyond the Act, and is itself a permanent poetic act of transcendence 超驗.

 

   The death of Empedocles should not be seen as merely another incident in the history of philosophy. What, we may ask, makes the image of Empedocls so central to the spiritual life of anyone who dreams of life and death and fire? It is assuredly 的確not the balance sheet 收支表of the man’s social life; nor is it the philosophy scattered 散開through the fragments 碎片of his thought which has wrongly been described as fundamental. No indeed! The image of Empedocles is one of the great images of the Poetics of annihilation 毀滅詩學. In the Empedoclean act the individual looms 隱約出現large as fire and becomes the principal actor in a veritable 可驗證的cosmic宇宙的 drama..

 

   The outcome 結果of the drama of Empedocles is not decided in a dialectics 辯證法 of acceptance and denial 背棄 . Denial is possible where ideas are concerned, never images. The interpretive 解釋的dialectics which suggest themselves here are many in number. To dedicate oneself to致力於 fire is to become fire!  Or perhaps to dedicate oneself to fire is to succeed in achieving a state 狀態 of Nothingness. It is a long way from the majesty輝煌 of flame 火焰 to that of Nothingness. Or again, perhaps such grand 輝煌的 and totalizing 整體化fire is one’s guarantee 保證of total purification 淨化. But is purification a guarantee of rebirth! In the Philosopher’s heart phoenixical 鳳凰鳥的 hope springs eternal.

 

Here possibilities for interpretation begin to emerge出現; and if the drama of Empedocles’ life is interpreted 解釋 in terms of his philosophy, one turned to time and time again down through the ages, any transposition 調換 becomes possible, everyone a fit 適當的 object of philosophic reverie 幻想 .Those of us capable of accepting all possibilities ( for all must be accepted!) enter thereby the realm 領域of the Poetics of Fire. Here ideas themselves have dreams, and everyone might well be termed 稱為Empedoclean. Each is an unconsummated 未實現的 pre-act , a delicate synthesis 綜合of tension and terror—a phenomenon 現象familiar to every serious dreamer of flames.

 

A number of testimonials 證明書will follow. Although we are not carried away by temptation誘惑 ourselves as the philosopher once freely chose to be, the fact that once he was is known to us. We dream endlessly that individuals are free still to confront 面對this possibility. Empedocles, the hero of a freely chosen death by fire, triggers 觸發 and perpetuates 使不朽these dreams in us. The human destiny he represents is one of fatal imagery 意象. There are times we are obliged 強迫by fire to imagine death. It was by such a fatal 致命的image that Empedocles was overcome.

 

In contrast to the myriad 無數的philosophies which claim that we are cast into existence, we confront here a Philosopher whose casts into the arms of death. While both birth and death are glorious Instants 瞬間, birth is not a matter of one’s choosing. Empedocles experiences freedom for the first time when he casts himself to death. Moments of decision like these are worthy objects of study for a Poetics of Time.

 

Empedocles’ Act takes place in an Instant upon a Summit 山頂. These four capitals 大寫字母work together here, and a Poetics of Fire must undertake to elevate 提升 their tone 語調. Psychological explanation will not suffice 足夠; poetic explication 解釋written in poetic capitals is called for. The dilemma 困境is a clear one: is the Act of Supreme 崇高Will on the Summit of the Mountain of Fire human circumstance or cosmic 宇宙的event?

 

If it is to be read as human drama, more psychological background a focus more on the action at center stage will be necessary. Distant 距離causality因果關係 will be seen to play as great a role as factors 因素 nearer the drama at hand. This eloquent psychology, despite its limited means 方法, serves to distance us from the munificence 寬宏 of the drama’s denouement 【de’numAH】結局.

 

Psychologically explained in this way, the Philosopher becomes just one more down-trodden 被踐踏的individual, a disappointed citizen or abandoned 被捨棄 political leader, caught in the web 網絡of social drama as any ordinary specimen 樣本of human psychology might be. The fervor 熱情of poetic sincerity 誠懇will be missing from any such work of minor psychological fiction in which the fantasies of psychologists of social drama are given free rein 免除駕馭 .

 

To move from psychology to theater the tone must be heightened 強調. Psychologists who fail to see theatricality 戲劇性 as vital to poetry will find themselves unable to account for 解釋this change in register 登記. How many vain attempts have playwrights made to lay the groundwork 奠下基礎for Empedocles’ final scene, undergirding 強化 Legend with a storyline!

 

As the number of quaint 古怪的and puerile 未成熟的 secondary characters, kings and women, is increased, the central character, Mount Etna, is forgotten. How is one then to study the psychology of the Volcano, bellowing 吼叫and groaning 呻吟 forth temptations 誘惑, sleeping so long as the philosopher sleeps and awakening as his cosmic intelligence awakens?

 

While the playwright is busy complicating 複雜化 the psychological drama of Empedocles further and further, his cosmic drama boils 沸騰to a head; the Philosopher answers the Volcano’s call, stirred 鼓動by merely human unhappiness no longer. The Volcano has in mind more than just a victim 受害者, more than simply any human sacrifice whatever. The Volcano wants Empedocles. And in this cosmic drama’s aftermath 餘波 the names Empedocles and Etna are forever joined.

 

No longer is it to recollect 回憶the one without remembering the other. Poets will have little use for 不喜歡those who would establish 證明the date of the philosopher’s death by charting 標明the volcano’s eruptions 爆發. Legends need not be dated 確定日期for they are eternal, revitalized 復活each time a poet dresses them in imagery anew.

 

Legends concerning 關於the summit are immovable 不動. Prometheus nailed upon the Caucsus, Empedocles scattered散開 to the four winds by mountain fire: in legends such as these the Summit becomes a character in its own right 本身. And the Etna of Empedocles is truly both the summit 山頂of a man and summit of a world.

 

The summit isolates. It overlooks 俯瞰 the sea, the true and the only sea, the sea great dreamers dream of gazing over 凝視as have so many of the culture’s heroes. Edgar Allan Poe, as an inhabitant 居民of the New World, is one poet who looks to the Mediterranean 地中海to lend his cosmic reveries 幻想the nobility of ancient thought. In proclaiming 宣稱his eureka 我發現, Poe goes so far as to imagine himself upon the mountain of Fire’s Summit! From here the human, more than human has the power to see all, to take his bearings 舉止in all directions and so embrace 擁抱 in a single primal vision 以原始的洞察力east and west, north and south, all that rises and all that sets:

 

He who from the top of Aetna casts his eyes leisurely 悠閒地around, is affected chiefly by the extent 程度and diversity 多樣化of the scene. Only by a rapid whirling 旋轉 on his heel could he hope to comprehend the panorama 全景in the sublimity 崇高of its oneness. But as, on the summit of Aetna, no man has thought of whirling on his heel, so no man has ever taken into his brain the full uniqueness 獨特性of the prospect 景象; and so, again, whatever considerations lies involved in this uniqueness, have as yet no practical existence for mankind.

 

Thus the ideality of Etna is forever glorified推崇!

 

While the name Empedocles is not pronounced 宣稱in Poe’s Eureka 我發現了, the Philosopher’s memory is palpable 可明瞭的 nonetheless throughout the meditation 沉思. In order to dream his philosophical dreams of a Unified World and to contemplate 沉思Existence, Poe travels to the very site where for Empedocles Being and None-Being were proximate 近似. Here the essence of the world is present in all its fullness 充實and splendor 輝煌. Here the infinities 無限of space find their center. Ye annihilating 毀滅的fire is to be found here too in all of its enormity 巨大. The Nothing is enormous here, the sea immense 廣漠的.

 

I hope to demonstrate 證明the importance of this concrete dialectic 辯正法of being and non-being to both the Empedoclean site and the Empedoclean act. We will begin with a look at the many poetic echoes 回響 of this dialectic in the tragedies and odes 頌歌 of the great poets, attempting through their works to come to terms with 達成協議the attraction of this symbol of annihilation 毀滅. It is a symbol which remains unresolved 未解決in the glory of the Poetics of Fire. Travelers today who climb to the top of Mt. Etna are reminded of Empedocles. It would prove a disappointment, though, were one to fall into the crater火山口—a poetic gesture manqué 假面劇. Indeed, the only way for one to live out he Empedoclean Act is through one’s poetry.

 

After taking a look at the great plays, I will, in the second part of my discussion, present a number of less striking 顯著的images which evidence only partially developed or barely 免強perceptible 感覺到temptations. Even images only hinted at 暗示, such as these, incontestably 無可置疑bear the sign of the workings 操作 of Empedoclean imagination. This should signal our arrival in a poetic realm 領域where the images of a psychological complex play themselves out in small imagistic意象的 cruelties, a realm of extremes where masochistic 受虐 and sadistic 虐待tendencies go hand in hand.

 

The butterfly plunging 投擲into the flame of a candle is undoubtedly the victim of phototropism 趨光性—this is the conclusion immediately drawn by any student of animal psychology. But what about the dreamer ? What about the poet who has no need to see in order to dream? It will be ours to discover whether a sufficient number of Empedoclean images may be collected without danger.

 

But why not begin grandly!

榮格論未發現的自我 031

May 19, 2009

榮格論未發現的自我030

The Undiscovered Self by C.G. Jung

Translated by Springhero 雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

To this question there is a positive answer only when the individual is willing to fulfill the demands of rigorous self-examination and self-knowledge.  If he follows through his intention, he will not only discover some important truths about himself, but will also have gained a psychological advantage: he will have succeeded in deeming himself worthy of serious attention and sympathetic interest.  He will have set his hand, as it were, to a declaration of his own human dignity and taken the first step towards the foundations of his consciousness—that is, towards the unconscious, the only accessible source of religious experience. This is certainly not to say that what we call the unconscious is identical with God or is set up in his place.  It is the medium from which the religious experience seems to flow.  As to what the further cause of such an experience may be, the answer to this lies beyond the range of human knowledge.  Knowledge of God is a transcendental problem.

 

對於這個問題,只有當個人願意實踐嚴格反省自我及瞭解自我的要求時,才會有肯定的答案。假如他實踐他的意願,他將不但會發現到一些有關自己的重要的真相,而且對於心靈也將大有助益。他將認為自己值得認真看待,同情及關懷。他將著手去宣稱擁有自己所謂的的人性尊嚴,然後朝向建立自我意識的第一步。換言之,朝向無意識,那是宗教經驗的接觸來源。這當然不是說,我們所謂的無意識等同於上帝,或建立起來代替上帝。只是宗教經驗似乎就是從這個媒介流露出來。至於,這個經驗的原因是什麼,答案則是超越於人類的知識範圍之外,有關上帝的知識是一個超驗的問題。

 

     The religious person enjoys a great advantage when it comes to answering the crucial question that hangs over our time like a threat: he has a clear idea of the way his subjective existence is grounded in his relation to “God”.  I put the word “God”

in quotes in order to indicate that we are dealing with an anthropomorphic idea whose dynamism and symbolism are filtered through the medium of the unconscious  psyche. Anyone who wants to can at least draw near to the source of such experiences, no matter whether he believes in God or not. Without this approach it is only in rare cases that we witness those miraculous conversions of which Paul’s Damascus experience is the prototype. 

   

     縈繞我們這個時代,有個迫切的問題,宛如是一種威脅,要回答,有宗教信仰的人享受一個很大的利益:他很清楚,他主體的存在跟上帝的關係是根基於何處。我說「上帝」用引號,為了表明,我們是在處理一個人類學的觀念,其動力跟象徵是透過無意識的心靈滲透出來。任何有此意圖的人,均能夠接近這個經驗的來源,無論他信仰上帝與否。若無此捷徑,我們只有在很少見的個案中,才能見證到那些神奇的改變信仰,其中聖保羅在達曼卡斯遇見耶穌而幡然改信是個典型。

 

That religious experiences exist no longer needs proof.  But it will always remain doubtful whether what metaphysics and theology call God and the gods is the real ground of these experiences. The question is idle, actually, and answers itself by reason of the subjectively overwhelming numinosity of the experience.  Anyone who has had it is seized by it and therefore not in a position to indulge in fruitless metaphysical or epistemological speculations.  Absolute certainty brings its own evidence and has no need of anthropomorphic proofs.

 

   宗教經驗存在這件事已經不言而喻。但是否形上學及神學所宣稱的上帝及神祇,就是這些經驗的真正基礎,總是有人置疑。實際上,這個問題無甚意義,而且憑藉主體時常有豐富的聖靈顯悟的經驗,答案就已呼之欲出。任何有過這個經驗的人,在聖靈顯悟時,常身不由己,因此不再適合於作形上學或認識論的思維。絕對確定本身就是證據,無需再要人類學的證據。

 

     In view of the general ignorance of and bias against psychology it must be accounted a misfortune that the one experience which makes sense of individual existence should seem to have its origin in a medium that is certain to catch everybody’s prejudices.  Once more the doubt is heard: “What good can come out of Nazareth?”  The unconscious, if not regarded outright as a sort of refuse bin underneath the conscious mind, is at any rate supposed to be of merely animal nature.”  In reality, however, and by definition it is of uncertain extent and constitution, so that overvaluation or undervaluation of it is groundless and can be dismissed as mere prejudice.  At all events, such judgments sound very queer in the mouths of Christians, whose lord was himself born on the straw of a stable, among the domestic animals.  It would have been more to the taste of the taste of the multitude if he had got himself born in a temple.  In the same way, the worldly- minded mass meeting, which provides an infinitely more imposing background the an individual soul.  Even Church Christians share this pernicious delusion.

 

   由於大眾的無知及對心理學的偏見,這個可以理解個人存在的經驗,竟然被認為起源於某種註定會引起眾人誤解的媒介,真是不幸。再一次,我們聽到這樣的懷疑:「來自拿撒勒鎮的耶穌能帶給我們好處?」無論如何,無意識即使沒有被直接當著是意識心靈底下的垃圾桶,也是僅僅應該是屬於動物天性的層次。可是。事實上及定義上,它都屬於不確定的程度及身體內部。所以高估或低估都是沒有根據,可排斥為偏見。無論如何。出於基督徒的口中,這樣的判斷聽起來甚為古怪,因為他們的主耶穌本身就誕生於馬厩的草堆中,與家畜同處。假如他誕生於廟堂,可能還更能符合大眾的興味。同樣的。世俗心靈的大眾在群眾聚會中尋找聖靈顯現的經驗。因為那裡比個人靈魂,提供更光明堂皇的背景。即使是教堂的基督徒都共同存有這欺瞞不實的幻覺。

 

     Psychology’s insistence on the importance of unconscious processes for religious experience is extremely unpopular, no less with the political Right than with the Left.  For the former the deciding factor is the historical revelation that came to man from outside; to the latter this is sheer nonsense, and man has no religious function at all, except belief in the party doctrine, when suddenly the most intense faith is called for. On top of this, the various creeds assert quite different things, and each of them claims to possess the absolute truth. Yet today we live in a unitary world where distances are reckoned by hours and no longer by weeks and months.  Exotic races have ceased to be peepshows in ethnological museums.  They have become our neighbors, and what was yesterday the prerogative of the ethnology is today a political, social and psychological problem.

 

  心理學堅持無意識過程對於宗教經驗的重要性,無論是對政治的右派或左派而言,目前非常不普及。對於前者,決定性的因素是歷史上從外在給人類的啟示;對於後者,這純然是胡說八道,因為人根本沒有宗教的功用,除了相信黨的教條,此時才要求最強烈的信仰。除此而外,各種信仰主張各有不同,個個都宣稱擁有絕對的真理。可是我們今天都生活在一個一致化的世界,距離的衡量是以小時,而不是以星期及月份。外來民族不再是種族博物館的讓人管窺之物。他們已經變成我們的鄰居。以前是某些種族的特權,今天是一個政治,社會及心理學的問題。

 

  Already the ideological spheres begin to touch, to interpenetrate, and the time may not be so far off when the question of mutual understanding in this field will become acute.  To make oneself understood is certainly impossible without far-reaching comprehension of the other’s standpoint. The insight needed for this will have repercussion on both sides. History will undoubtedly pass over those who feel it is their vocation to resist this inevitable development, however desirable and psychologically necessary it may be to cling to what is essential and good in our own tradition..  Despite all the differences, the unity of mankind will assert itself irresistibly.  On this card Marxist doctrine has staked its life, while the West hopes to get by with technology and economic aid.  Communism has not overlooked the enormous importance of the ideological element and the universality of basic principles.  The nations of the Far East share our ideological weakness and are just as vulnerable as we are.  

 

    各方面的意識形態已經開始碰觸及互相交會,所以在這個領域,大家敏銳感受到要互相瞭解的日子應該是指日可待。假如沒有深刻的理解到對方的觀點,要使自己被人瞭解委實不可能。所需要的遠見,在兩邊都會有影響。那些堅持要抗拒這個無可避免的發展的人,儘管堅持自己的傳統的優點,在心理上是受人渴望而且必須,毫無疑問會受到歷史的淘汰。儘管各種差異,人類的一致性將會勢不可擋地彰顯出來。馬克思的教條已將賭注押在這張牌上,而西方世界則希望以科技跟經濟的援助作為緩衝。共產主義並沒有忽略,這個意識形態的因素的重要性

及基本原則的普遍性。遠東的國家共同有我們意識形態的弱點,跟我們一樣容易受到傷害。

榮格論未發現的自我 01

May 18, 2009

榮格論未發現的自我 01

The Undiscovered Self by C.G. Jung

Translated by Springhero 雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

The plight of the individual in modern society

個人在現代社會的困境

 

What will the future bring? From time immemorial this question has occupied men’s minds, though not always to the same degree. Historically, it is chiefly in times of physical, political, economic and spiritual distress that men’s eyes turn with anxious hope to the future, and when anticipations, utopias and apocalyptic visions multiply. One thinks, for instance, of the chiliastic expectations of the Augustan age at the beginning of the Christian Era, or of the changes in the spirit of the West which accompanied the end of the first millennium Today, as the end of the second millennium draws near, we are again living in an age filled with apocalyptic images of universal destruction. What is the significance of that split, symbolized by the “ Iron Curtain,” which divides humanity into two halves? What will become of our civilization, and of man himself, if the hydrogen bombs begin to go off, or if the spiritual and moral darkness of State absolutism should spread over Europe?

 

未來會帶來什麼?從遠古以來,這個問題就一直佔據人的心靈,雖然程度不同。從歷史淵源而言,主要是在生理、政治、經濟及精神痛苦的時代,人的眼光才會帶著焦慮的希望展望未來,此時期盼,烏托邦及世界末世的幻想常會紛至沓來。例如,在基督教初期,我們會想到奧古斯丁時代對於千福年的期待,或是伴隨第一個千禧年而來,西方精神的變化。今天,隨著第二個千禧年的結束行將來到,我們再一次生活在一個充滿宇宙毀滅的末日形象的時代。「鐵幕」將人類區分成兩半,它所象徵的那種分裂是什麼意義?假如氫彈萬一爆炸,或者假如國家絕對主義的道德黑暗萬一遍佈歐洲,我們的文明及人類本身將會遭遇如何?

 

We have no reason to take this threat lightly. Everywhere in the West there are subversive minorities who, sheltered by our humanitarianism and our sense of justice, hold the incendiary torches ready, with nothing to stop the spread of their ideas except the critical reason of a single, fairly intelligent, mentally stable stratum of the population. One should not, however, overestimate the thickness of this stratum. It varies from country to country in accordance with national temperament. Also, it is regionally dependent on public education and is subject to the influence of acutely disturbing factors of a political and economic nature. Taking plebiscites as a criterion, one could on a optimistic estimate puts its upper limit at about 40 per cent of the electorate. A rather more pessimistic view would not be unjustified either, since the gift of reason and critical reflection is not one of man’s outstanding peculiarities, and even where it exists it proves to be wavering and inconstant, the more so, as a rule, the bigger the political groups are. The mass crushes out the insight and reflection that are still possible with the individual, and this necessarily leads to doctrinaire and authoritarian tyranny if ever the constitutional State should succumb to a fit of weakness.

 

我們沒有理由輕忽看待這個威脅。西方每個地方都有顛覆的少數人,以我們的人道主義及正義做為掩護,拿著煽動的火炬,悍然散播他們的理念,我們除了發揮理性智慧,明察是非的層次之外,別無它法可以制止。可是,對於這個層次有多堅實,我們不應該評估過高。因為它在每個國家都不相同,隨著國家的國民性情而定。而且,有些地區是依靠公共教育,會受到政治及經濟擾亂因素的影響。以公民投票作為標準,最樂觀的估計,上限是選民的百分之四十。若是持更悲觀的看法也不是沒有道理,因為理性的天賦及思辯的反省並不是人類顯著的特性。即使是存在,也是搖擺不定。通常政治團體越大,越是如此。在個人尚可能存在的見識及反省,常為群體所壓垮。這必然導致教條及權勢的暴虐,假如,憲政的國家萬一陷於軟弱的話。

 

Rational argument can be conducted with some prospect of success only so lng as the emotionality of a given situation does not exceed a certain critical degree. If the affective temperature rises above this level, the possibility of reason’s having any effect ceases and its place is taken by slogans and chimerical wish-fantasies. This is to say, a sort of collective possession results which rapidly develops into a psychic epidemic. In this state all those elements who existence is merely tolerated as asocial under the rule of reason come to the top. Such individuals are by no means rare curiosities to be met with only in prisons and lunatic asylums. For every manifest case of insanity there are, in my estimation, at least ten latent cases who seldom get to the point of breaking out openly but whose views and behavior, for all their appearance of normality, are influenced by unconsciously morbid and perverse factors. There are, of course, no medical statistics on the frequency of latent psychoses—for understandable reasons. But even if their number should amount to less than ten times that of the manifest psychoses and of manifest criminality, the relatively small percentage of the population figures they represent is more than compensated for by the peculiar dangerousness of these people. Their mental state is that of a collectively excited group ruled by affective judgments and wish-fantasies. In a state of “ collective possessive” they are the adapted ones and consequently they feel quite at home in it. They know from their own experience the language of these conditions and they know how to handle them. Their chimerical ideas, up-

borne by fanatical resentment, appeal to the collective irrationality and find fruitful soil there, for they expr4ess all those motives and resentments which lurk in more normal people under the cloak of reason and insight. They are, therefore, despite their small number in comparison with the population as whole, dangerous as sources of infection precisely because the so-called normal person possesses only a limited degree of self-knowledge.

 

只有某個情況的情緒不要超過某個標準,理性的辯論才能成功地從事。假如情緒的溫度上升超過這個程度,理性能夠產生影響的可能性就會停止,它的位置就會被口號及荒誕不經的願望及幻想所取代。換言之,隨之而來的會是集團的著魔,然後迅速地發展成為心靈的瘟疫。在此狀態,所有那些原先存在於理性的統治下,被包容為非社會性的因素,會浮上表面。這樣的個人絕非是稀有的好奇人物,也非區區的監獄及精神病院所能盡容。依我估計,每個精神病患明顯發作的個案,至少有十個潛在的案例很少到達公開發作的程度,他們的觀點跟行為,儘管外表看起來正常,潛意識已經受到病態及變態的影響。當然,這些潛在精神病患發作的次數,因為眾所周知的理由,並沒有醫學上的統計。但是即使他們的數目還不到明顯精神病患及明顯罪犯的十倍,所代表的人口數目比較微不足道,但是這些人特殊的危險性卻是不可小覷。他們的精神狀態是集體興奮團體的狀態,受到情緒作弄及一廂情願的幻想所支配。在「集體著魔」狀態,他們最為適應,結果也相當心安理得。他們根據自己的經驗知道這些狀況的語言,他們知道如何操縱這些狀況。他們荒誕不經的想法,產生於瘋狂的怨氣,訴諸於集體的非理性,並在此找到肥沃的泥土。因為他們表達了正常的人在理性及明理的外衣下,所潛藏的這些動機跟怨氣。因此,儘管他們的數目跟整體的人口比較起來是少數,他們作為傳染的來源是危險,因為所謂的正常人對於自我的瞭解甚為淺薄。

雄伯手記980514

May 15, 2009

雄伯手記980514

     冒著電腦被當機的危險,從網路上下載到大陸導演婁燁的「頤和園」 Summer Palace。上下集觀看到深夜就寢時,心頭依舊縈繞著惆悵與迷惘。

    這不單純是兩對男女的愛情糾葛,而是兩個孤高自許的女人彼此惺惺相惜,互相較量,以競標一個男人的愛情靈魂決勝負。聰慧自負的余虹進入最高學府北清大學,初識室友李緹時,就挑釁地說:「你不怕我搶了你的男友?」

「不怕!你沒有機會!」

     非但不怕自己的男友若古被搶,還主動介紹充滿理想的知識份子的周偉給她當男友,然後當他們熱戀情迷之際,再刻意將周偉吸引迷惑過來。余虹知道這是一場愛情靈魂的競標,她只有再加大籌碼,犧牲自己的自尊委曲求全(你打我我就走)。挨了三下耳光之後,再柔情依偎,終於板回一城。

   此時,六四天安門學運發生,政府軍警強力鎮壓。參與的學子紛紛走避,李緹藉著男友若古的家世背景的幫忙,將周偉帶到德國。有那麼一陣子,她覺得是操穩左卷了。只是有一次做愛之後,裸身在陽台上為周偉整理頭髮時刻意問到:「那年夏天我們怎麼了?」

   「那年夏天?」

     周偉恍惚的神情告訴她,他的愛情靈魂念茲在茲是余虹。現在她只剩一個籌碼。在參加海外學生紀念遊行之後,當著周偉轉身向若古他們借火抽煙之際,她淡然微笑地從頂樓陽台邊像鴿子般仰身而下。

       在那一瞬間,周偉的愛情靈魂終於為她所攫取,余虹真的沒有機會了。縱使周偉回國後,他們仍然設法互相連繫會面,只是喪失愛情靈魂之後的他,已經是形同行屍走肉之身。

雄伯手記980511

May 14, 2009

雄伯手記980511

 

人有旦夕禍福,電腦也是一樣。由於下載及增加的檔案日多,電腦的速度越來越慢,解決的方法就是清理冗贅無用的執行檔。這時螢幕上突然蹦跳出一個名為系統安全整理的軟體System Security,由於正有渴望的迫切需求,就不疑有他地開啟。不料那是一個惡意軟體,幾分鐘就蹦跳出來一次, 要求用信用卡購買它的正版軟體。然後word及 outlook 等常用檔也跟著死當,到系統檔去刪除已經來不及了。僅剩的唯一方法就是將整台電腦的系統還原到剛出廠的狀態,也就是說,這一年多來所累積的來不及備份的資料,全都蕩然無存了。

 

電腦尚可還原,人呢?你相信靈魂累世輪迴的重生說嗎?或者,在人生的符號語言日漸混濁侘傺之時,浪跡天涯它鄉異地,算是象徵性的系統還原?

 

唉!別想太多了。

布希亞論誘拐 08

May 9, 2009

布希亞論誘拐 08 Baudrillard on Seduction

Translated by Springhero 雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

THE ETERNAL IRONY OF
THE COMMUNITY

This femininity, the eternal irony
of the community.

Hegel

              社會的永恆反諷

                    女性,社會的永恆反諷

                                    黑格爾            

                  

Femininity as a principle of uncertainty.

女性作為不穩定原理

It causes the sexual poles to waver. It is not the pole opposed to masculinity, but what abolishes the differential opposition, and thus sexuality itself, as incarnated historically in the masculine phallocracy, as it might be incarnated in the future in a female phallocracy. If femininity is a principle of uncertainty, it is where it is itself uncertain that this uncertainty will be greatest: in the play of femininity.

它引起性的兩極的搖擺。它不但是跟男性相對的一極,而且是廢除差異的相對,因此廢除性愛的本身。如歷史上在男性陽具主導所具體表現的,如將來在女性的陽具主導所具體表現的。假如女性是不穩定原理,那麼就在不穩定本身的地方,這個不穩定最為強烈:女性的運作。

Transvestism.

異裝擗

Neither homosexuals nor transexuals, transvestites like to play with the indistinctness of the sexes. The spell they cast, over themselves as well as others, is born of sexual vacillation and not, as is customary, the attraction of one sex for the other. They do not really like male men or female women, nor those who define themselves, redundantly, as distinct sexual beings. In order for sex to exist, signs must reduplicate biological being. Here the signs are separated from biology, and consequently the sexes no longer exist properly speaking. What transvestites love is this game of signs, what excites them is to seduce the signs themselves. With them everything is makeup, theater, and seduction. They appear obsessed with games of sex, but they are obsessed, first of all, with play itself; and if their lives appear more sexually endowed than our own, it is because they make sex into a total, gestural, sensual, and ritual game, an exalted but ironic invocation.

 既不是同性戀,也非變性,異裝癖喜歡扮演性別的模糊。她們所投射在她們自己及別人身上的魔力,誕生於性別的搖擺,習俗上並不是某一性別吸引另一性別。她們並不是真的喜歡男性化的男人或女性化的女人,也不是那些多此一舉,自我定義當著清楚性向的人。為了讓性愛存在,符號必須複製生物的存在。在此符號跟生物分開,結果是性愛不再存在,說得恰當些。異裝癖所喜愛的是符號的遊戲,令她們興奮的是誘拐符號的本身。對她們而言,一切都是裝扮,舞台,及誘拐。她們似乎被性愛的遊戲所著迷,但是她們首先著迷於遊戲本身。假如她們的生命似乎比我們自己的生命更加稟賦性愛,那是因為把性當著是整體的,姿態的,性感的,及典禮的遊戲,一種崇高而反諷的祈願。

Nico seemed so beautiful only because her femininity appeared so completely put on. She emanated something more than beauty, something more sublime, a different seduction. And there was deception: she was a false drag queen, a real woman, in fact, playing the queen. It is easier for a non-female/female than for a real woman, already legitimated by her sex, to move amongst the signs and take seduction to the limit. Only the non-female/female can exercise an untainted fascination, because s/he is more seductive than sexual. The fascination is lost when the real sex shows through; to be sure,
some other desire may find something here, but precisely no longer in that perfection that belongs to artifice alone.

 

尼可只有在完全將其女性裝扮時,才顯得美麗。她散發出的,不僅僅是美麗的儀態,崇高的氛圍,一種不同的誘拐。這就是欺騙,她是虛假的異裝舞會的皇后,事實上是一個真實的女人,扮演皇后。在符號中間走動,並將誘拐發揮到淋漓盡致,這對於一位非女性及女性,比已經被自己的性別合法化的真實的女人更容易。只有非女性及女性能運用這種不受污染的著迷,因為他或她比性更有誘拐力。當真實的性顯現出來,著迷就消失了。的確,在此或許有其他慾望可以找到,但確實不再是僅屬於巧計的完美。

 

Seduction is always more singular and sublime than sex, and it commands the higher price. One must not seek to ground transvestism in bisexuality. For the sexes and sexual dispositions, whether mixed or ambivalent, indefinite or inverted, are still real, and still bear witness to the psychic reality of sex. Here, however, it is this very definition of the sexual that is eclipsed. Not that this game is perverse. What is perverse is what perverts the order of the terms; but here there are no longer any terms to pervert, only signs to seduce.

 

誘拐總是比性愛更加奇特而崇高,得到的價碼更高。我們切不可將異裝癖歸咎於雙性戀,因為性愛或性的傾向,不管是混合或是曖昧,不確定或變態,都依舊是真實的,依舊見證到性愛的心靈真實。可是,就是這個性愛的定義被遮蔽了。這倒不是這個遊戲是變態的。真正變態的是倒轉了這些術語的秩序,但是在此不再有任何術語被倒轉,只有符號被誘拐。

榮格釋夢 10

May 7, 2009

榮格釋夢 10

The Psychology and Alchemy by C. G. Jung 心理學與煉金術

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

16. Dream:

  An ace of clubs lies before the dreamer. A seven appears beside it.

 

第十六夢:

  方塊么點放在作夢者前面。一張七出現在旁邊。

 

   The ace, as “ 1,” is the lowest card but the highest in value. The ace of clubs, being in the form of a cross, points to the Christian symbol. Hence in Swiss-German the club is often called cross. At the same time the three leaves contain an allusion to the threefold nature of the one God. Lowest and highest are beginning and end, alpha and omega.

 

   這個作為「一」的么點是樸克牌最低的牌,但是價質最高。方塊么點是十字架的形狀,指向基督的象徵。因此在瑞士跟德語,方塊時常被稱為十字架,同時三的餘數包含暗示到一位上帝的三重屬性。最低跟最高就是開始與結束,希臘文第一個字母跟最後一個字母。

 

   The seven appears after the ace of clubs and not before. Presumably the idea is: first the Christian conception of God, and then the seven ( stages). The seven stages symbolize the transformation which begins with the symbolism of Cross and Trinity, and, judging by the earlier archaic allusions in dreams 7 and 13, culminates in the solificatio. But this solution is not hinted at here. Now, we know that the regression to the Helios of antiquity vainly attempted by Julian the Apostate was succeeded in the Middle Ages by another movement that was expressed in the formula “ through the cross to the rose), which was later condensed into the “ Rosie Crosse” of the Rosicrucians. Here the essence of the heavenly Sol descends into the flower—earth’s answer to the sun’s countenance. The solar quality has survived in the symbol of the ‘ golden flower” of Chinese alchemy. The well-known “ blue flower” of the Romantics might well be the last nostalgic perfume of the “ rose”: it looks back in true Romantic fashion to the medievalism of ruined cloisters, yet at the same time modestly proclaims something new in earthly loveliness. But even the golden brilliance of the sun had to submit to a descent, and it found its analogy in the glitter of earthly gold—although, as aurum nostrum, this was far removed from the gross materiality of the metal, at least for subtler minds. One of the most interesting of the alchemical texts is the Rosarium philosophorum. The anonymous author was very definitely a “ philosopher” and was apparently aware that alchemy was not concerned with ordinary gold-making but with a philosophical secret. For these alchemists the gold undoubtedly had a symbolic nature and was therefore distinguished by such attributes as vitreum or philosophicum. It was probably owing to its all too obvious analogy with the sun that gold was denied the highest philosophical honor, which fell instead to the lapis philosophoruium. The transformer is above the transformed, and transformation is one of the magical properties of the marvllous stone. The Rosarium philosophorum says: “ For our stone, namely the living western quicksilver which has placed itself above the gold and vanquished it, is that which kills and quickens.” As to the “ philosophical” significance of the lapis, the following quotation from a treatise ascribed to Hermes is particularly enlightening: “ Understand, ye sons of the wise, what this exceeding precious stone proclaims…’ and my light conquers every light, and my virtues are more excellent than all virtues…I beget the light, but the darkness too is of my nature…

 

  七出現在方塊么點後面,而非前面。假設的觀念是:首先是基督教上帝,然後是七個階段的觀念。七個階段象徵著開始於十字架與三位一體的轉換,根據較早對於七跟十三的夢的的暗示,在圓融地達到高潮。但是在此並沒有暗示這樣的解決。現在我們知道,在中世紀使徒朱利安曾經企圖倒退到遠古的太陽,徒然無功,現在另一個經由「十字架到薔薇」的公式所表達的行動則繼續下去,後來被濃縮為薔薇十字教派會員的「薔薇十字」。在此,上天聖靈的本質降落到花朵上,是世間對於太陽面貌的回答。太陽的特質存活於中國煉金術對於「黃金花」的象徵。浪漫時期著名的「藍色花朵」很有理由是對於「薔薇」的香味最後的懷念,它以真實的浪費時尚回顧中世紀破落的修道院,可是同時又很謙虛地宣稱,世間的可愛有某些新的東西。但是即使太陽黃金般的燦爛都必須屈服於降落,這可比擬於世間黃金的光輝,雖然這樣距離金屬的總材質甚為牽強,至少對於纖妙的心靈而言。有一段甚為有趣的煉金術文本是薔薇哲理。匿名的作者確實是一位哲學家,顯然知道煉金術不是關於普通的製造黃金,而是哲學的秘密。對於這些煉金術師而言,黃金毫無疑問具有象徵的特質,因此根據這樣的特性,可顯現當著生命之道。可能是由於太明顯可類比於太陽,黃金被絕給予最崇高的道的榮譽,取而代之的是鑽石之道。轉換者地位高於被轉換者,轉換是神奇寶石的魔術般屬性。薔薇之道上說:「對於我們的寶石,有生命力的西方水銀,曾將自己置身於黃金之上而征服它,是具有殺傷力及催化力。」至於鑽石之道的意義,以下從赫默士所寫的一篇論文的引文,特別具有啟發性:「智慧的子民,要瞭解這個過度珍貴寶石所宣稱的:我的光征服一切光,我的品德優秀於所有其它品德,我產生光,但是黑暗也是我的屬性。」

 

17. Dream:

   The dreamer goes for a long walk, and finds a blue flower on the way.

 

第十七夢:

   作夢者散歩很久,在途中發現一朵藍色的花。

 

   To go for a walk is to wander along paths that lead nowhere in particular; it is both a search and a succession of changes. The dreamer finds a blue flower blossoming aimlessly by the wayside, a chance child of nature, evoking friendly memories of a more romantic and lyrical age of the youthful season when it came to bud, when the scientific view of the world had not yet broken away from the world of actual experience—or rather when this break was only just beginning and the eye looked back to what was already the past. The flower is in fact like a friendly sign, a numinous emanation from the unconscious, showing the dreamer, who as a modern man has been robbed of security and of participation in all the things that lead to man’s salvation, the historical place where he can meet friends and brothers of like mind, where he can find the seed that wants to sprout in him too. But the dreamer knows nothing as yet of the old solar gold which connects the innocent flower with the obnoxious black art of alchemy and with the blasphemous pagan idea of the solificatio. For the “ golden flower of alchemy” can sometimes be a blue flower: “ The sapphire blue flower of the hermanphrodite.”

 

   散步是沿著沒有特別目的的小徑漫遊,那既是一種追尋,又是一連串的改變。作夢者發現一朵藍色花朵無目的地盛開在路邊,像是自然的偶然出生之女,召喚友善的回憶更加浪漫及抒情的時代,當花朵初長蓓蕾的青春季節,當科學尚未脫離實際經驗的世界,或是當這種脫離只是剛剛開始,眼光尚回顧已經過往的世界。花朵事實上像是友善的象徵,從無意識神秘地散發出來,作夢者作為現代人,已經被剝奪掉安全感及參與感,花朵給他指示一條人的救贖之道,一處歷史的位置,在那裡,他能夠跟相同心靈的朋友兄弟相會,他能找到想要在他身上萌芽的種子。但是作夢者絲毫不知道,古老的太陽般黃金連接純真的花朵跟煉金術的邪門道術,以及異教徒褻瀆神明的「圓融地」觀念。因為「煉金術的黃金花」有時會是一朵藍色花:陰陽同體的藍寶石般的藍色花朵。

布希亞論誘拐 07

May 3, 2009

布希亞論誘拐 07 Baudrillard on Seduction

Translated by Springhero 雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

Any movement that believes it can subvert a system by its infrastructure is naive. Seduction is more intelligent, and seemingly spontaneously so. Immediately obvious – seduction need not be demonstrated, nor justified – it is there all at once, in the reversal of all the alleged depth of the real, of all psychology, anatomy, truth, or power. It knows (this is its secret) that there is no anatomy, nor psychology, that all signs are reversible. Nothing belongs to it, except appearances – all powers elude it, but it “reversibilizes” all their signs. How can one oppose seduction? The only thing truly at stake is mastery of the strategy of appearances, against the force of being and reality. There is no need to play being against being, or truth against truth; why become stuck undermining foundations, when a light manipulation of appearances will do?

 

任何相信自己的動作能夠顛覆一個系統的內部結構,都是天真的想法。誘拐是更加聰明,表面看起來自然是更加是如此。顯而易見,誘拐不需要證明,也不需要找理由。它當下就在那裡,顛覆了真實界,一切心理學,解剖學,真理,或權力所宣稱的深度。它知道(天機不可洩漏),解剖學,心理學都是騙人的,所有的符號均可顛覆。誘拐沒有自己的東西,除了各種表象,各種權力閃避誘拐,但是卻被它顛覆了他們所有的符號。我們如何能反對誘拐呢?真正陷入危險的,只是在存在與真實的力量對抗之下,表象的策略會失控。實在沒有需要去扮演存在對抗存在,真理對抗真理。假如表象輕輕操弄一下就土崩瓦解,那又何必大費周章去毀損它的基礎?

 

Now woman is but appearance. And it is the feminine as appearance that thwarts masculine depth. Instead of rising up against such “insulting” counsel, women would do well to let themselves be seduced by its truth, for here lies the secret of their strength, which they are in the process of losing by erecting a contrary, feminine depth.

 

   現在女人只是表象。而阻礙男人深度的正是女人作為表象。非但沒有挺身而出對抗如此「污辱人」的勸告,女人欣然樂意讓自己被這項真理所誘拐,因為她們的力量的秘密就在此。她們豎立一個相反的女性深度,漸漸失去這樣的力量。

 

It is not quite the feminine as surface that is opposed to the masculine as depth, but the feminine as indistinctness of surface and depth. Or as indifference to the authentic and the artificial. Joan Riviere, in “Feminité sans mascarade” (La Psychoanalyse no. 7), makes a fundamental claim – one that contains within it all seduction: “Whether femininity be authentic or superficial, it is fundamentally the same thing.”

 

  跟男性作為深度相對立的,並不完全是女性作為表面,而是女性作為表面跟深度的模糊地帶。或是如瓊、銳比爾在「陰柔與陽剛」一書中所做的基本宣稱,女性作為對於真實及人為的漠視,這種漠視已經包含含所有的誘拐在其中:無論女性是真實或是表面,基本上都是同一樣的東西。

 

This can be said only of the feminine. The masculine, by contrast, possesses unfailing powers of discrimination and absolute criteria for pronouncing the truth. The masculine is certain, the feminine is insoluble. Now, surprisingly, this proposition, that in the feminine the very distinction between authenticity and artifice is without foundation, also defines the space of simulation. Here too one cannot distinguish between reality and its models, there being no other reality than that secreted by the simulative models,
just as there is no other femininity than that of appearances. Simulation too is insoluble.

 

這種宣稱只有適用於女性。比較起來,男性擁有歧視及絕對標準的不容擊敗的權力,來宣告真理。男性是確定,而女性是無法瓦解。現在令人驚奇的是,對於女性而言,真實與偽裝並沒有基礎,這個假設也定義了模擬的空間。在此,我們也無法區別真實及其模範。除了模擬模範所顯現出來的真實外,別無其它真實,如同表象的女性外,別無其它女性。模擬也是不可瓦解的。

 

This strange coincidence points to the ambiguity of the feminine: it simultaneously provides radical evidence of simulation, and the only possibility of its overcoming – in seduction, precisely.

 

   這個奇怪的巧合指出女性的曖昧:它同時供應模擬的具體證據,也供應克服它的可能性,準確地說,就是誘拐。

布希亞論誘拐 06

May 1, 2009

布希亞論誘拐 06   Baudrillard on Seduction

Translated by Springhero 雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

There is a strange, fierce complicity between the feminist movement and the order of truth. For seduction is resisted and rejected as a misappropriation of women’s true being, a truth that in the last instance is to be found inscribed in their bodies and desires. In one stroke the immense privilege of the feminine is effaced: the privilege of having never acceded to truth or meaning, and of having remained absolute master of the realm of appearances. The capacity immanent to seduction to deny things their truth and turn it into a game, the pure play of appearances, and thereby foil all systems of power and meaning with a mere turn of the hand. The ability to turn appearances in on themselves, to play on the body’s appearances, rather than with the depths of desire. Now all appearances are reversible . ..only at the level of appearances are systems fragile and vulnerable . . . meaning is vulnerable only to enchantment. One must be incredibly blind to deny the sole force that is equal and superior to all others, since with a simple play of the strategy of appearances, it turns them upside down.

 在女性主義運動跟真理的秩序之間有一種奇怪的強烈共謀。因為誘拐被抗拒及拒絕,當著是對於女人真實的存在的誤用。這個真理在下一個例子能夠被發現是鐫刻在她們的身體跟慾望上。這個女性的巨大特權其實不堪一擊就被抹除:從來沒有認同真理或意義,及始終是表象領域的絕對主人的特權。誘拐擁有內在能力拒絕給予事情的真理,將它化成遊戲,純粹是表象的遊戲,因此僅僅憑藉手腕的靈巧,就挫敗了所有權力的制度。誘拐擁有能力將表象自得其樂,玩弄身體的表象,而不是慾望的深度。目前所有的表象都是可逆轉的。只有在表象的層次上,制度是脆弱,不堪一擊,在魅惑下,意義也是弱不禁風。除非我們極端盲目,才會否認這唯一的力量相匹敵及優越於所有其他的力量。因為表象簡單地運用策略,所有其他力量都土崩瓦解。

     Anatomy is destiny, Freud said. One might be surprised that the feminist movement’s rejection of this definition, phallic by definition, and sealed with the stamp of anatomy, opens onto an alternative that remains fundamentally biological and anatomical:

 解剖是命運,佛洛依德說。我們會驚訝,女性主義運動拒絕這個定義,陽具的定義,卻又在解剖的封印下,展開一個基本上始終是生物跟解剖的替代的選擇。

                 Indeed, woman’s pleasure does not have to choose
                between clitoral activity and vaginal passivity, for
               example. The pleasure of the vaginal caress does
                not have to be substituted for that of the clitoral
               caress. They each contribute, irreplaceably, to
              woman’s pleasure. Among other caresses . . .Fon-
              dling the breasts, touching the vulva, spreading the
              lips, stroking the posterior wall of the vagina,
              brushing against the mouth of the uterus, and so
             on. To evoke only a few of the most specifically
             female pleasures.

                                                     Luce Irigaray

 

                 的確,女性的歡樂並不需要在陰核的活動跟陰道的

                被動之間做選擇,舉一個例子。陰道愛撫的歡樂並不

               需要以陰核愛撫的歡樂來替代。對於女人的歡樂,

               它們各有貢獻,不可替代。除了其它愛撫外,搓揉乳

               房,碰觸陰戶,攤開嘴唇,輕拍陰道後璧,摩擦子宮

               口,等等。為了挑逗起一些明確是女人的歡樂。

                                                                露絲、伊芮嘉瑞

                          

     Parole de femme? But it is always an anatomical speech, always that of the body. What is specific to women lies in the diffraction of the erogenous zones, in a decentered eroticism, the diffuse polyvalence of sexual pleasure and the transfiguration of the entire body by desire: this is the theme song that runs through the entire female, sexual revolution, but also through our entire culture of the body, from the Anagrammes of Bellmer to Deleuze’s mechanized connections. It is always a question of the body, if not the anatomical, then the organic, erogenous body, the functional body that, even in fragmented and metaphorical form, would have pleasure as its object and desire as its natural manifestation. But then either the body is here only a metaphor (and if this is the case, what is the sexual revolution, and our entire culture, having become a body culture, talking about?), or else, with this body speech, this woman speech, we have, very definitely, entered into an anatomical destiny, into anatomy as destiny. There is nothing here radically opposed to Freud’s maxim.

  妻子的誘惑?但這總是解剖的話語,總是身體的話語。女人的明確歡樂在於性感地區的衍射,解除中心的性欲,性歡樂的豐富多重性,及整個身體為慾望所扭曲。這不但是運轉於整個女性的主題曲,性愛革命,而且運轉於身體的整個文化,從貝爾默的迴文構詞到德勒茲的機械聯結。這總是身體的問題,即使不是解剖的,也是器官的性感身體,功用的身體。即使是以片段及比喻的方式,這個身體都是以歡樂當其目標,慾望當其自然的展示。但是身體在此只是一個比喻(設若這樣,性愛革命是什麼?我們整個文化已經成為身體文化,還能談論什麼?),要不然,使用身體的話語,女人的話語,我們很明確地,已經進入解剖的命運,進入以解剖當命運。在此沒有東西能強烈地跟佛洛依德的箴言相提並論。

        Nowhere is it a question of seduction, the body worked by artifice (and not by desire), the body seduced, the body to be seduced, the body in its passion separated from its truth, from that ethical truth of desire which obsesses us – that serious, profoundly religious truth that the body today incarnates, and for which seduction is just as evil and deceitful as it once was for religion. Nowhere is it a question of the body delivered to appearances. Now, seduction alone is radically opposed to anatomy as destiny. Seduction alone breaks the distinctive sexualization of bodies and the inevitable phallic economy that results.

        這絲毫不是誘拐的問題,身體被巧計所運作(而不是被慾望),身體被誘拐,身體將被拐,激情中的身體跟其真理分開,跟蠱惑我們的慾望的倫理的真理分開,跟今天身體的具體化身,嚴肅的道地的宗教的真理分開,對其而言,跟以前對宗教而言,誘拐都是邪惡及欺騙。這絲毫不是身體被遞送給表象的問題。現在,只有誘拐能跟解剖強烈對立當著命運。只有誘拐能打破身體明顯的性愛化,以及所造成的無可避免的陽具經濟學。