火的詩學 03

火的詩學 03

Fragments of A Poetics of Fire by Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉




   Sometimes it is through resistance 抗拒 to Empedoclean imagery, by means of contradiction 矛盾, that the path to Empedoclean seduction comes to light 顯現出來.


   Our temptation to cast ourselves into the flames is not fulfilled. We balk 畏怯already at the thought of even minor burns. This provides us an initial 最初protection at least against what is too hot to handle, a physiological d生理上的efense which allows us to enjoy Empedoclean temptations in all safety. In the final analysis, the image of Empedocles is one of those rare images 稀有的意象 which has never had a victim.


   It is for this reason that the Empedocles Complex 情結appears in transposed 轉換的form, and that it is capable of returning to life with tremendous 巨大的violence in poetry.


   I seem not have adequately 足夠stressed in my earlier essay on The Psychoanalysis of Fire the nuance  細微差別which distinguishes the power of the senses in real life from the power of the sense in imagined, imagining, imaginary life. TheEmpedocles Complex as once transposed 轉換permits us to dramatize our reveries before fire, rendering 使成為them excessive. By means of excessive imagining we enter the realm 領域 of the poetic, and thus read the poets dynamically 戲劇性地.


   Poets bring new life to our complexes of solitude 孤獨情結. To read a poem about the death of Empedocles is to become the solitary 孤獨 hero—and the poet as well:


        And gladly, did not love restrain 遏制me,

            Deeply as the hero plunged 投擲I’d follow,


    Psychoanalysts show bare 不加掩飾的 interest in these complexes of solitude, or at least  if they discover the traces 痕跡of one they base their interpretations 解釋on familiar, social, or domestic 家庭的factors. The psychoanalyst who came across 偶遇these lines by Holderline would respond to the poet something like this: “ As it is love which restrains 遏制 you, there would appear to be something you are trying to escape. Your beloved smothers 使窒息you in affection, hence you dream of death. You love her deeply in return and so, Empedoclean that you are, you find yourself hating her at least a little. You are consumed  燒毀by two opposing flames.” The Empedoclean philosopher’s great lesson, it seems, was to have pointed out of the intimate, tenacious 堅韌的 union 結合between hatred and love. Empedocles was precursor 先驅to the philosophy of ambivalence 愛恨交加. He inscribed 銘記love and hatred in the very mechanism 機械學of the Universe. How could this same ambivalence not be present 存在於in the human heart? And how then could it not be found at the heart of that dynamic 有活力的 super-element 超級因素, fire. Fire is benevolent 仁慈and cruel. It is a god, truly.


   With this we find ourselves back in the realm 領域 of images, at the dynamic center of excessive imagery 意象 . We have, in a certain manner 方式, been transposed 轉換ourselves by an Empedocles Complex which has been itself transposed into the realm of poetry. Solitude 孤獨 in reading is ours once again, a means 方法to escape the socialized investigations of the psychoanalysts. The poetic can be lived by us apart from our experience of the mundane 世俗. As Genevieve Bianquis has put it: “ What does it matter 重要 if such moments are fleeting 瞬間so long as they are imperishable 不可毀滅的.” When an Empedocles Complex is present in a poem we experience that imperishable instant 瞬間of figurative 象徵, Cosmic 宇宙的death.


   In moments such as these the superiority 優秀of the Poetic over the Psychological becomes apparent 明顯. The more resolutely 決心one puts off all traces of psychology, cutting oneself of what Nietzsche, I believe, terms 稱呼 “ the plague 瘟疫of biography,” the more certain one will be of having entered the realm 領域of Poetics.


   The imaginary complex 情結 calms itself in a writer’s works or work. And with this we have arrived at the very heart of our study of literary activity, at the very seat of the Poetics of Fire. What might have become of  遭遇Nietzsche’s imaginary life had he succeeded in creating his Empedocles?


   Empedoclean temptations 誘惑 are to be found even in the anti-Empedoclean ourbursts 爆發 of Zarathoustra. One venerates 尊敬the flames of hell even in mocking 嘲諷them, and the splendors of Etna’s fate are but poorly suppressed 壓抑in anti-Empedoclean imagery. The two opposing orders 秩序of violence inhabit駐紮在the same realm. Listen as Nietzsche curses 詛咒the Volcano rising from the sea “ not far from the happy Isles 小島of Zarathoustra”:


  This term 用詞Ventriloquist 腹語表演者 alone stands as sufficient mockery 嘲諷of all the rumblings 隆隆聲of the Earth and terrifying din 喧囂聲 of the Volcano. To make fun 作樂 in this way is to free oneself of childish fright. Beside the many child-adults frightened of the Dog of the Abyss 深淵,  Nietzsche seems a man, a veritable 真實的superman.


   He derides 嘲笑 all the Volcano’s demons 惡魔, declaring:


   “ You know to bellow 怒吼and to darken with ashes灰燼! Best braggarts 自誇者and the world experts in the art of making the mud seethe 沸騰.”


   It matters little that these imprecations 詛咒語are followed by a tirade 激烈的攻擊against the revolutionaries 革命of the day. If Nietzsche hopes to draw comparisons 對比 between the troubles of society and the cataclysms  劇烈變動of the subterranean 地下的world, he wastes his own time and his reader’s both. Only the image is real; the volcano alone possesses true dynamic 有活力的power. The real life in Nietzche’s work is to be found in his images. We see him here in hot pursuit 追求of excessive imagery—he declaims 發表 inflammatory 煽動性words, incensed 憤怒的words directed not to an audience but to Etna as imagined by a rebellious 反叛的Empedocles who believes in shouting No to the temptations of the void 空無


    Yet, in cursing 詛咒the volcano, Nietzsche belongs to the volcano. He confesses 坦承in another poem to a flame-like nature of his own.


              Ecce Homo 瞧!這個人

        Yes, I know from whence I came!

        Ever hungry like a flame,

        I consume 燒毀myself and glow.發光

        Light grows all that I conceive 想像,

        Ashes everything I leave;

        Flame I am, assuredly 確定.


    But far more than the flame of a hearth 爐床fire, the Philosopher is Flame of a Volcano:


    My life is a consuming 燒毀的 fire, and so long as its victim shall live so long shall pour forth the holy smoke of its holocaust 大破壞. The perfumed 芳香的cloud will fly into the distance, out over the sea, stirring 激動 the solitary Navigator’s 航海者的heart.


    In the resonance 共鳴of these poems is it possible to avoid the sense that an Empedoclean fate 命運remained alive in Nietzsche the philosopher’s dreams? Empedocles ends up a wisp 縷of smoke, a perfumed 芳香的cloud overhanging 垂懸 the sea. Nietzsche never tells us the tale; everything is there in the one master image. Images suffice 足夠because of their vastness 廣漠. Images make one as big as the world. The Poetics of Fire require no storyline. A storyline is but the string 串線on which the pearls 珍珠are strung, hardly worth a second thought once one has been transfixed 怔住by the richly jeweled marvels 驚奇 of fire.



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