Archive for April, 2009

雄伯手記980420

April 19, 2009

雄伯手記980420

 

週日讀書會談到精神分析學派榮格所說「靈魂的世界」’’Magnum Opus of the Soul’ :人的靈魂跟宇宙萬物能有靈犀溝通的能力。C忽然掏出一台袖珍的數位相機,展示一隻貓站立窗外,眼神觀看別處的畫面,幽幽地說:「你們瞧這隻貓,我每天養他、照顧他,跟他親密地招呼對談,像是他有靈性似的,然而他卻是站立在窗外,似乎對隔壁的貓較感興趣勝過於對我。」

 

「貓是動物,你是人耶!」H玩笑地說。

「我就說啦,C的靈魂最近快要出竅啦!」K補上一句。

 

我的意識流突然跳接到幾個星期前的一封郵件:「之前你說你的部落格和翻的東西,都沒認真的想要找,很奇怪,一聽說你到紐西蘭去,突然很想看看你在紐西蘭好不好,才認真上網找,一找就找到了。真是有趣,不在,反而與我同在。」

 

今天早上起來,重新翻看巴特、羅蘭的那篇「結構主義的活動」The Structuralist Activity:「古代的希臘人對自然界的靈魂甚為驚奇,詢問山、泉、森林、暴風雨的意義。雖然不知道所有這些東西告訴他些什麼,他從這個宇宙的秩序中感受到一個巨大的意義的震撼。後來,自然已經改變,成為社會性,每一樣人被給予的東西都已經是人的文化。」

 

掩卷時,意識流飄到去年我觀看的一部影片「意志」The Will,男主角站在遠處,透過明亮的玻璃窗,遙望同居女友在餐廳跟幾位同事交際應酬、談笑自如的景象,悵然若失地離去。

Dream 05 榮格釋夢

April 14, 2009

Dream 05 榮格釋夢

Psychology and Alchemy by C.G. Jung

Translated by Springhero 雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

7. Visual Impression:

  The veiled woman uncovers her face. It shines like the sun.

 

第七夢:視覺印象

載面紗的女人揭開面目,面目像太陽般閃耀。

 

  The solificatio is consummated on the person of the anima. The process would seem to correspond to the illuminatio, or enlightenment. This “ mystical” idea contrasts strongly with the rational attitude of the conscious mind, which recognizes only intellectual enlightenment as the highest form of understanding and insight. Naturallly this attitude never reckons with the fact that scientific knowledge only satisfies the little tip of personality that is contemporaneous with ourselves, not the collective psyche that reaches back into the grey mists of antiquity and always requires a special rite if it is to be united with present-day consciousness. It is clear, therefore, that a “ lighting up” of the unconscious is being prepared, which has far more the character of an illuminatio than of rational “ elucidation.” The solification is infinitely far removed from the conscious mind and seems to to it almost chimerical.

 

圓融圈在具有阿尼瑪特色的人身上表現最為淋漓盡致。這過程似乎跟照耀或啟發相一致。這個「神秘」的觀念跟意識心靈的理性態度強烈對比,後者只承認知識的啟發,當著是理解跟見識的最高形式。當然,這種態度從未考慮到這個事實:科學知識只滿足跟我們同時存在的人格的一小部分,但並未滿足延伸到古代朦朧迷霧的集體心靈。這個集體心靈若是要跟今天的意識相結合,需要有一個特別的儀式。因此,顯而易見地,無意識的「照亮」正在準備過程,它具有照耀而非理性說明的特性。這個圓融圈距離意識非常遙遠,對於意識而言似乎近乎荒誕。

 

8. Visual Impression:

  A rainbow is o be used as a bridge. But one must go under it and not over it. Whoever goes over it will fall and be killed.

 

第八夢:視覺印象

  彩虹應該被使用當橋樑,但是人從彩虹底下,而非上面過去。任何從上面過去的人會摔下而死。

  Only the gods can walk rainbow bridges in safety; mere mortals fall and meet  their death, for the rainbow is only a lovely semblance that spans the sky, and not a highway for human beings with bodies. These must pass “ under it”. But water flows under bridges too, following its own gradient and seeking the lowest place. This hint will be confirmed later.

 

  只有眾神能安全第行走彩虹橋樑。一般眾生會摔下死掉,因為只是橫跨天空的可愛的相同物,不是給有身體的人類的公路。人類必須在「彩虹底下」通過。但是水也從橋樑底下流過,遵照自己的傾斜度,尋找最低點。這個暗示以後還會再證明。

 

9. Dream

  A green land where many sheep are pastured . It is the “ land of sheep.’

 

第九夢:

  牧許多綿羊的綠色土地。那是「綿羊地」。

 

  This curious fragment, inscrutable at first glance, may derive from childhood impressions and particularly from those of a religious nature, which would not be far to seek in this connection—e.g., “ He maketh me to lie down in green pastures,” or the early Christian allegories of sheep and shepherd. The next vision points in the same direction.

 

  奇怪的碎片,乍見覺察不出來,可能來自童年的印象,特別是來自具有宗教性質的童年印象。有關這方面的聯想到處可找到,例如「上帝要我躺在綠茵草地上」,或早期基督教有關綿羊跟牧羊人的寓言。下一個視覺景象指向相同方向。

 

Dream 04 榮格釋夢

April 13, 2009

Dream 04 榮格釋夢

Psychology and Alchemy by C.G. Jung

Translated by Springhero 雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

5. Visual Impression:

  A snake describes a circle round the dreamer, who stands rooted to the ground like a tree.

 

第五夢: 視覺印象

作夢者豎立在地上像一棵樹,一條蛇繞著他圍一個圓圈。

 

   The drawing of a spellbinding circle is an ancient magical device used by everyone who has a special or secret purpose in mind. He thereby protects himself from the “ perils of the soul” that threaten him from without and attack anyone who is isolated by a secret. The same procedure has also been used since olden times to set a place apart as holy and inviolable; in founding a city, for instance, they first drew the sulcus primigenius or original furrow. The fact that the dreamer stands rooted to the center is a compensation of his almost insuperable desire to run away from the unconscious. He experienced an agreeable feeling of relief after this vision—and rightly, since he has succeeded in establishing a protected temenos, a taboo area where he will be able to meet the unconscious. His isolation, so uncanny before, is now endowed with menaing and purpose, and thus robbed of its terrors.

 

魔法圈的繪製是古代的魔術設計,心裡有特別或秘密計劃的人士所使用。他因此可以保護自己免於「靈魂的危險」,這個危險從外面威脅他並且攻擊任何讓秘密所孤立的人。從古代以來相同的程序也被使用,分開一個地方當著神聖不可侵犯。例如,建立一個城市時,他們首先劃出一個「原始的鴻溝」。作夢者豎立中央,補償他幾乎無法克服的渴望,想要逃離無意識。在這個幻象之後,他經驗到一種舒服的欣慰之感。這是有道理的,因為他成功地建立一個保護的禁忌區,在那裡他能夠會見他的無意識。他的孤立以前是那麼神秘,現在賦予意義和目標,因此剝除掉恐懼。

 

6. Visual Impression, Directly Following Upon 5.

  The veiled figure of a woman seated on a stair.

 

第六夢:視覺印象,直接跟在第五夢後面。

女人端坐在椅子上的戴面紗身體。

The motif of the unknown woman—whose technical name is the “ anima”—appears here for the first time. Like the throng of vague female forms in dream 4, she is a personification of the animated psychic atmosphere. From now on the figure of the unknown woman reappears in a great many of the dreams. Personification always indicates an autonomous activity of the unconscious. If some personal figure appears we may be sure that the unconscious is beginning to grow active. The activity of such figures very often has an anticipatory character: something that the dreamer himself will do later is now being done in advance. In this case the allusion is to a stair, thus indicating an ascent or a descent.

 

無名女人的主題,它的專門術語是「阿尼瑪」,第一次在這裡出現。就像在第四夢的那群女人形體,她是活躍的心靈氛圍的具體化身。從現在開始,無名女人的身體在許多夢中重新出現。具體化身總是指示無意識自主自發的活動。假如某些個人身體出現,我們可以確定,無意識漸漸開始活躍起來。這種身體的活動常常會有預期的特性:作夢者自己以後會做的事,現在提前就在做。這個夢的情況是提到樓梯,因此意謂著上升或下降。

 

Since the process running through dreams of this kind has an historical analogy in the rites of initiation, it may not be superfluous to draw attention to the important part which the Stairway of the Seven Planets played in these rites, as we know from Apuleius, among others. The initiations of late classical syncretism, already saturated with alchemy ( cf. the visions of Zosimos), were particularly concerned with the theme of ascent, i.e., sublimation. The ascent was often represented by a ladder ; hence the burial gift in Egypt of a small ladder for the ka of the dead. The idea of an ascent through the seven spheres of the planets symbolizes the return of the soul to the sun-god from whom it originated, as we know for instance from Firmicus Maternus. Thus the Isis mystery described by Apuleius culminated in what early medieval alchemy, going back to Alexandrian tradition as transmitted by the Arabs, called the solificatio, where the initiand was crowned as Helios.

 

因為經歷這種夢的過程在創始的典禮中有歷史的類同,讓我們注意一下在這些典禮中七座行星的樓梯,扮演重要的角色,如我們所知,在阿普列斯的畫中。晚期古典的融合的創始儀式已經充滿煉金術(如左西瑪的幻象),特別關心到上升,也就是昇華的主題。這個上升往往用梯子代表,在埃及,使用小梯子當埋葬的禮物,送給冥府神。經歷七個行星的範圍上升的觀念象徵靈魂回到它原先來自的太陽神,如我們在馬特納思書中所找到例子。因此阿普列斯所描述的哀西思的神秘,在早期中世紀煉金術最為興盛,可以回溯到阿拉伯所傳遞的亞歷山大的傳統,被稱為「圓融地」,在那裡創始者被冠冕當太陽神。

Dream 03 榮格釋夢

April 13, 2009

Dream 04 榮格釋夢

Psychology and Alchemy by C.G. Jung

Translated by Springhero 雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

4. Dream:

   The dreamer is surrounded by a throng of vague female forms. A voice within him says, “ First I must get away from Father.”

 

第四夢:

作夢者被一大群的模糊女性形體包圍。他的內在聲音說:「首先我必須逃離父親。

 

Here the psychic atmosphere has been animated by what the Middle Ages would call succubi. We are reminded of the visions of St. Anthony in Egypt, so eruditely described by Flaubert in La Tentation de Saint-Antoine. The element of hallucination shows itself in the fact that the thought is spoken aloud. The words “ first I must get away” call for a concluding sentence which would begin with “ in order to.” Presumably it would run “ in order to follow the unconscious, i.e., the alluring female forms”. The father, the embodiment of the traditional spirit as expressed in religion or a general philosophy of life, is standing in his way. He imprisons the dreamer in the world of the conscious mind and its values. The traditional  masculine world with its intellectualism and rationalism is felt to be an impediment, from which we must conclude that the unconscious, now approaching him, stands in direct opposition to the tendencies of the conscious mind an that the dreamer , despite this opposition, is already favorably disposed towards the unconscious. For this reason the latter should not be subordinated to the rationalistic judgments of consciousness; it ought rather to be an experience sui geneis. Naturally it is not easy for the intellect to accept this, because it involves at least a partial, if not a total, sacrificium intellectus. Furthermore, the problem thus raised is very difficult for modern man to grasp: for to begin with he can only understand the unconscious as an inessential and unreal appendage of the conscious mind, and not as a special sphere of experience with laws of its own. In the course of the later dreams this conflict will appear again and again, until finally the right formula is found for the correlation of conscious and unconscious, and the personality is assigned its correct position between the two. Moreover, such a conflict cannot be solved by understanding, but only by experience. Every stage of the experience must be lived through. There is no feat of interpretation or any other trick by which to circumvent this difficulty, for the union of conscious and unconscious can only be achieved step by step.

 

在此,心理氣氛被中世紀所說的女妖精所活躍。我們想起聖安東尼在埃及的幻象,弗羅貝爾在「聖安東尼的誘惑」一書,廣徵博引地描述。思想被大聲說出來的事實,使這個幻覺的元素自然展現。「首先我必須逃離」的字眼呼喚一個以「為了」開端的結論的句子。假設這個句子的展現是「為了遵照無意識,誘惑的女性形體」。在宗教及一般人生哲學所表達的,父親是作為傳統精神的具體表現,現在妨礙到他。他囚禁作夢者在意識心靈及其價值的世界裡。傳統的男性世界及其知性及理性被感覺是一種障礙,從這裡我們可以下個結論:無意識現在接近他,跟意識心理的傾向直接相對立,可是儘管對立,作夢者已經偏愛傾向於無意識。因為這個理由,後者不應該臣服於意識的理性判斷。相反的,那是一種獨一無二的經驗。知識份子自然不容易接受這個經驗,因為它牽涉到即使不是全部,至少要部份的犧牲知性。而且所引發的問題也非現代人所輕易理解,因為現代人首先只能理解無意識,當著是意識心靈的非基本及非真實的附屬,而不是當著是特別的經驗領域,擁有自己的法則,在後來的夢的過程,衝突會一再地出現,直到最後意識跟無意識相互關係的適當公式才被找到,人格被指定它在兩者之間的正確位置。而且,這樣一種衝突無法靠著理解來處理,而是要親身經驗。經驗的每個階段必須自己身體立行。再多的詮釋能耐,再多的技巧,都無法繞過這個困難,因為意識跟無意識的結合只能一步一步地達成。

 

The resistance of the conscious mind to the unconscious and the depreciation of the latterwere historical necessities in the development of the human psyche, for otherwise the conscious mind would never have been able to differentiate itself at all. But modern man’s consciousness has strayed rather too far from the fact of the unconscious. We have even forgotten that the psyche is by no means of our design, but is for the most part autonomous and unconscious. Consequently the approach the unconscious induces a panic fear in civilized people, not least on account of the menacing analogy with insanity. The intellect has no objection to “ analyzing” the unconscious as a passive object; on the contrary such an activity would coincide with our rational expectations. But to let the unconscious go its own way and to experience it as a reality is something that exceeds the courage and capacity of the average European. He prefers simply not to understand this problem. For the spiritually weak-kneed this is the better course, since the thing is not without its dangers.

 

意識心靈抗拒無意識,及後者遭受貶抑,就人類的心理發展的歷史而言,是必要的,因為若非如此,意識心靈本來根本無法顯現出來。但是現代人的意識已經距離無意識存在的事實迷失太遠。我們甚至忘記,心靈絕非是我們自己設計,而是大部份都是自動自發及無意識。結果,無意識的到達引起文明人的驚慌恐懼,主要是因為它類同威脅我們的瘋狂。知識份子並不反對「分析」無意識,當著是被動的客體。相反的,這樣的活動將會跟我們理性的期望不謀而合。但是讓無意識自行其是並經驗到它當著真實,是超過一般歐洲人的膽識跟能耐。歐洲人較偏愛僅僅是理解就好。對於精神的軟弱膝蓋者,這是較佳的選擇,因為過程不是沒有危險性。

 

   The experience of the unconscious is a personal secret communicable only to very few, and that with difficulty; hence the insolating effect we noted above. But isolation brings about a compensatory animation of the psychic atmosphere which strikes us as uncanny. The figures that appear in the dream are feminine, thus pointing to the feminine nature of the unconscious. They are fairies or fascinating sirens and lamia., who infatuate the lonely wanderer and lead him astray. Likewise seductive maidens appear at the beginning of the nekyia of Poliphilo, and the Melusina of Paracelsus is another such figure.

 

   無意識的經驗是個人的祕密,只能跟少數人溝通,而且還困難重重。因此產生

我們以上所注意到的孤立效應。但是孤立產生心靈環境的補償性的活躍,給我們的印象是神秘。出現在我們夢中的形體是女性的,因此可以看出無意識具有女性的特質。她們是仙女、迷人的妖精或妖婦,迷惑孤獨的旅人,使他們迷途。同樣的,在波力菲洛的「冥獄之旅」的開始就有誘惑的少女出現,巴拉西沙思的「玫盧西娜仙女」是另一個這樣人物。

Dream 02 榮格釋夢

April 13, 2009

Dream 02 榮格釋夢

Psychology and Alchemy by C.G.. Jung 心理學與煉金術

Translated by Springhero 雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

Hypnagogic Visual Impression:

By the sea shore. The sea breaks into the land, flooding everything. Then the dreamer is sitting on a lonely island.

 

第三夢:催眠視覺印象

在海邊。海浪侵入陸地,淹沒一切。然後作夢者坐在孤獨島上。

 

The sea is the symbol of the collective unconscious, because unfathomed depths lie concealed beneath its reflecting surface. Those who stand behind, the shadowy personification of the unconscious, have burst into the terra firma of consciousness like a flood. Such invasions have something uncanny about them because they are irrational and incomprehensible to the person concerned. They bring about a momentous alteration of his personality since they immediately constitute a painful personal secret which alienates and isolates him from his surroundings. It is something that we “ cannot tell anybody.” —not without reason, for much the same thing happens to lunatics. Even so, it is a far cry from the intuitive perception of such an invasion to being inundated by it pathologically, though the layman does not realize this. Isolation by a secret results as a rule in an animation of the psychic atmosphere, as a substitute for loss of contact with other people. It causes an activation of the unconscious, and this produces something similar to the illusions and hallucinations that beset lonely wanderers in the desert, seafarers, and saints. The mechanism of these phenomena can best be explained in terms of energy. Our normal relations to objects in the world at large are maintained by a certain expenditure of energy. If the relation to the object is cut off there is a “ retention” of energy, which then creates an equivalent substitute. For instance, just as persecution mania comes from a relationship poisoned by mistrust, so, as a substitute fro the normal animation of the environment, an illusory reality rises up in which weird ghostly shadows flit about in place of people. That is why primitive man has always believed that lonely and desolate places are haunted by “ devils” and suchlike apparitions.

 

海是集體無意識象徵,因為深不可測的海底隱藏在反映的表面。那些站在後面的人是無意識人格的陰影化身,像洪水般突然衝進意識的堅實土地。這樣的侵入有點神秘,因為他們對於相關的人是非理性而且無法理解。他們導致他人格的重大輪遞,因為他們立刻形成令人痛苦的個人秘密,使他跟他的環境疏離跟孤立。這是「我們無法告訴任何人的事情」。我們害怕被指控是精神異常,這種害怕不是沒有緣故,因為瘋子不就發生這樣的事。即使是這樣,從侵入的直覺感受到病理上整個被淹沒,還是大不相同,雖然外行人體會不出來。懷有秘密的孤獨一般來說會造成心理環境的活躍,作為喪失跟別人互動的代替品。它引起無意識的興奮,類似於包圍在沙漠孤獨旅人,航海者、及隱士的幻想或幻見。這些現象的機械學用能源的術語最能道盡其詳。我們跟一般世界客體的關係客體的關係客體的關係是靠著某種能源的消耗來維持,假如跟客體的關係被切斷,能源會「保留」下來,然後繪創造相等的代替品。例如,被迫害的精神病患起源於人際關係因不信任而受毒害,因此作為環境的正常活躍的代替品,會產生一種幻覺的現實,古怪的鬼魂魅影代替人活躍其間。那就是為什麼原始人總是相信,孤獨及荒涼的地方總是有「邪魔」及類似的魅影出沒。

Dream 01 榮格釋夢

April 12, 2009

Dream 01 榮格釋夢

From Psychology and Alchemy by C.G. Jung 心理學與煉金術

Translated by Springhero 雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

1.      Dream:

The dreamer is at a social gathering. On leaving, he puts on a stranger’s hat instead of his own.

 

The hat, as a covering for the head, has the general sense of something that epitomizes the head. Just as in summing up we bring ideas “ under one head” , so the hat, as a sort of leading idea, covers the whole personality and imparts its own significance to it. Coronation endows the ruler with the divine nature of the sun, the doctor’s hood bestows the dignity of a scholar, and a stranger’s hat imparts a strange personality. Meyrink uses this theme in his novel The Golem, where the hero puts on the hat of Athanasius Pernath and, as a result, becomes involved in a strange experience. It is clear enough in The Golem that it is the unconscious which entangles the hero in fantastic adventures. Let us stress at once the significance of the Golem parallel and assume that the hat in the dream is the hat of an Athanasius, an immortal, a being beyond time, the universal and everlasting man is distinct from the ephemeral and “ accidental” mortal man. Encircling the head, the hat is round like the sun-disc of a crown and therefore contains the first allusion to the mandala. We shall find the attribute of eternal duration confirmed in the ninth mandala dram, while the mandala character of the hat comes out in the thirty-fifty mandala dram. As a general result of the exchange of hats we may expect a development similar to that in The Golem: an emergence of the unconscious. The unconscious with its figures is already standing like a shadow behind the dreamer and pushing its way into consciousness.

 

第一夢:

作夢者在社交聚會。離開時,他戴上陌生人的帽子,而非自己的帽子。

 

帽子作為頭的覆蓋,象徵著頭的一般意涵。如同我們在做總結時,我們將各種觀念總括在「一個頭緒之下」,帽子作為一個引導的觀念,涵蓋整個人格,並傳達其意義。加冕典禮賦予統治者以太陽的神聖特質,醫生的兜帽賦予他學者的莊嚴,而陌生人的帽子傳達怪異的人格。梅齡克在他的小說「泥人」使用這個主題,主角戴上阿桑;波拿的帽,結果牽涉到一個奇異的經驗。在「泥人」中,顯而易見,無意識使主角陷入奇幻冒險的糾纏。讓我們同時強調「泥人」對北的重要性假定夢中的帽子就是阿桑、波拿神的帽子,此神既是無所不在地永恆,又兼具永存的肉身,迴異於一般蜉蝣而「無常」的眾生。環罩著頭顱,帽子形狀圓形,像皇冠的太陽盤,因此包含曼陀羅的第一個比喻。在第九曼陀羅之夢,我們也將會找到永恆時間被證實的特質,而在第三十五曼陀羅之夢,帽子具有曼陀羅特性顯現出來。由於帽子換喻的結果,我們可以預期會有像在「泥人」小說中類似的發展:無意識的出現。無意識跟它的身形已經像個陰影站立在作夢者後面,推擠到意識層面。

 

2.      Dream:

The dreamer is going on a railway journey, and by standing in front of the window, he blocks the view for his fellow passengers. He must get out of their way.

 

The process is beginning to move, and the dreamer discovers that he is keeping the light from those who stand behind him, namely the unconscious components of his personality. We have no eyes behind us; consequently “ behind” is the region of the unseen, the unconscious. If the dreamer will only stop blocking the window ( consciousness), the unconscious content will become conscious.

 

第二夢:

作夢者正要去搭乘火車旅行,由於站立在窗前,他擋住其他殺乘客的視限。他必須要讓開。

 

這個過程開始移動,作夢者發現到他擋到站立在背後那人的光線,換言之,那是他人格無意識組成部份。我們背後沒有眼睛,結果是背後是我們看不見的地區,是無意識。作夢者只有停止擋住窗戶(意識),無意識的內容才會被意識到。

德勒茲 34

April 9, 2009

Deleuze 德勒茲 34  Treatise on Nomadology 論遊牧

Translated by Springhero 雄伯譯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

Husserl speaks of a protogeometry that addresses vague, in other words, vagabond or nomadic, morphological essences. These essences are distinct from sensible things, as well as from ideal, royal, or imperial essences. Protogeometry, the science dealing with them, is itself vague, in the etymological sense of “ vagabond” : it is neither inexact like sensible things nor exact like ideal essences, but anexact yet rigorous ( “ essentially and not accidentally inexact”) The circle is an organic, ideal, fixed essence, but roundness is a vague and fluent essence, distinct both from the circle and things that are round ( a vase, a wheel, the sun). A theorematic figure is a fixed essence, but its transformations, distortions, ablations, and augmentations, all of its variations, form problematic figures that are vague yet rigorous, “ lens-shaped,” “ umbelliform,” or “ indented.” It could be said that vague essences extract from things a determination hat is more than thinghood , which is that corporeality, and which perhaps even implies an esprit de corps. But why does Husserl see this as a protogeometry, a kind of halfway point and not a pure science? Why does he make pure essences dependent upon a passage to the limit, when any passage to the limit belongs as such to the vague? What we have, rather, are two formally different conceptions of science, and ontologically, a single filed of interaction in which royal science continually appropriates the contents of royal science loose. At the limit, all that counts is the constantly shifting borderline.

 

胡賽爾提到,原始幾何學處理模糊的,換言之,流浪或遊牧的地形本質,這些本質顯見不同於可理解的事物,也不同於理念的、皇家或帝國的本質。原始幾何學是處理這些本質的科學,本身就是模糊,就是「流浪」的字原學意義。它既不像理解事物般不明確,也不像理念本質那樣明確,而是不明確但有彈性「基本上但不是意外的不明確」。圓圈是有機的、理念及固定的本質,但是圓形卻是模糊而流暢的本質,不同於圓圈及圓的事物(花瓶、輪子、太陽)。定理的圖形是一個固定的本質,但是它的轉變、扭曲、消鎔、增強、「透鏡形狀」、「繖形狀」或「鋸齒形狀」。我們可以說,模糊本質從事物中得到一個不僅是事物的決定,具體肉身,可能又兼具精神。但是為什麼胡賽爾將它看著是一種原始幾何學,一種中途點,而不是純粹科學?為什麼他要純粹科學依靠到達極限的過程,而任何極限過程又如此屬於模糊?相反的,我們所擁有的是兩種形式上不同的科學理念,本體論而言,卻又是單一的互動領域,皇家科學繼續佔有模糊或遊牧的科學,而遊牧科學繼續將皇家科學鬆散開來。在極限處,重要的是不斷轉移的邊界線。

 

In Husserl ( and also in Kant, though in the opposite direction: roundness as the “ schema” of the circle), we find a very accurate appreciation of the irreducibility of nomad science, but simultaneously the concern of a man of the State, or one who sides with the State, to maintain a legislative and constituent primacy for royal science. Whenever this primacy is taken for granted, nomad science is portrayed a a prescientific or parascientific or subscientific agency. And most important, it becomes impossible to understand the relations between science and technology, science and practice, because nomad science is not a simple technology or practice, but a scientific field in which the problem of these relations is brought out and resolved in an entirely different way than from the point of view of royal science. The State is perpetually producing and reproducing ideal circles, but a war machine is necessary to make something round. Thus the specific characteristics of nomad science are what need to be determined in order to understand both the repression it encounters and the interaction “ containing” it.

 

我們發現,胡賽爾(康德也是一樣,雖然方向相反:圓形是作為圓圈的「基模」)明確地欣賞遊牧科學的不可化減性,但是同時關懷國家人或偏袒國家的人,這樣他才能維持皇家科學最基本的合法性及正當性。每當這個基本被視為當然,遊牧科學就被描述為前科學、玄科學或次科學的代理。最重要的,科學與科技,科學與實踐的關係變得無法理解,因為遊牧科學不是單純的科技或實踐,而是一個科學的領域,這些關係的問題被展現出來處理的方式,完全不同於皇家科學的觀點。國家不斷地製造及複製理想的圓圈,但是製作圓形的東西需要戰爭機器。因此,遊牧科學的明確特性是需要被決定,為了瞭解它所遭遇的壓抑及「包容」它的互動。

 

Nomad science does not have the same relation to work as royal science. Not that the division of labor in nomad science is any less thorough; it is different. We know of the problems States have always had with journey-men’s associations, or compagnonnages, the nomadic or itinerant bodies of the type formed by masons, carpenters, smiths, etc. Settling, sedentarizing labor power, regulating the movement of the flow of labor, assigning it channels and conduits, forming corporations in the sense of organisms, and, for the rest, relying on forced manpower recruited on the spot or among indigents ( charity workshops)—this has always been one of the principal affairs of the State, which undertook to conquer both a band vagabondage and a body nomadism.

 

遊牧科學跟皇家科學並沒有相同的運作關係,倒不是因為遊牧科學的勞工的區分比它不徹底,而是不同。我們知道國家遭遇到一些問題,對於熟練工人協會或工會,由水泥匠、木匠、鐵匠等組成的遊牧或流動團體。安定而固定的勞動力,規範勞工流動的動作,指定給它一些管道跟通道,形成有組織意涵的公司,其它部份就依靠現場的強迫徵召的人力,或是窮人(慈善的工作坊)。這始終是國家的主要事務,從事征服流浪群體遊牧團體

 

Let us return to the example of Gothic architecture for a reminder of how extensively the journey-men traveled, building cathedrals near and far, scattering construction sites across the land, drawing on an active and passive power ( mobility and the strike) that was far from convenient for the State. The State’s response was to take over management of the construction sites, merging all the divisions of labor in the supreme distinction between the intellectual and the manual, the theoretical and the practical, modeled upon the difference between “ governors “ and “ governed.” In the nomad sciences, as in the royal sciences, we find the existence of a “ plane,” but not at all in the same way. The ground-level plane of the Gothic journey-man is opposed to the metric plane of the architect, which is on paper and off site. The plane of consistency or composition is opposed to another plane, that of organization or formation. Stone cutting by squaring is opposed to stone cutting using templates, which implies the erection of a model for reproduction. It can be said not only that there is no longer a need for skilled or qualified labors, but also that there is a need for unskilled or unqualified labor, for dequalification of labor. The State does not give power to the intellectuals or conceptual innovators; on the contrary, it makes them a strictly dependent organ with an autonomy that is only imaged yet is sufficient to divest those whose job it becomes simply to reproduce or implement of all of their power. This does not shield the State from more trouble, this time with the body of intellectuals it itself engendered, but which asserts new nomadic and political claims, In any case, if the State always finds it necessary to repress the nomad and minor sciences, if it opposes vague essences and the operative geometry of the trait, it does so not because the content of these sciences is inexact or imperfect, or because of their magic or initiatory character, but because they imply a division of labor opposed to the norms of the State. The difference is not extrinsic: the way in which a science, or a conception of science, participates in the organization of the social field, and in particular induces a division of labor, is part of that science itself. Royal science is inseparable from a “ hylomorphic” model implying both a form that organizes matter and a matter prepared for the form; it has often been shown that this schema derives less from technology or life than from a society divided into governors and governed, and later, intellectuals and manual laborers. What characterizes it is that all matter is assigned to content, while all form passes into expression. It seems that nomad science is more immediately in tune with the connection between content and expression themselves, each of these two terms encompassing both form and matter. Thus matter, in nomad science , is never prepared and therefore homogenized matters, but is essentially laden with singularities ( which constitute a form of content). And neither is expression formal; it is inseparable from pertinent traits ( which constitute a matter of expression). This is an entirely different schema, as we shall see. We can get a preliminary idea of this situation by recalling the most general characteristic of nomad art, in which a dynamic connection between support and ornament replaces the matter-matter duality ( even in the case of biunivocal correspondences). Rather, it follows the connections between singularities of matter and traits of expression, and lodges on the level of these connections, whether they be natural or forced. This is another organization of work and of the social field through work.

 

讓我們再回到歌德式建築的例子,讓我們想起熟練工人如何到處旅行,到處建築大教堂,到處散置建築工地,依靠主動及被動的力量(流動性及罷工),這是國家所不方便做的。國家的反應是接收建築工地的管理,統合所有勞工的區分,明顯區別知識階級者跟勞力者,理論者跟實用者,仿傚「統治者」跟「被統治者」的模式。在遊牧科學跟家科學,我們都發現「平面」的存在,但是方式迴然不同。歌德式建築工人的地面「平面」,跟建築師遠離工地的紙上作業的量尺平面相反。一致性或制作的平面,跟組織或組成的另一平面相反。石頭當下切割跟用模板切割相反,後者意謂著要先建立複製的模型。我們可以說,不再有技術工或熟練工的需要,而且需要非技術工或熟練工,來解除勞工的資格限制。國家並沒有賦予權力給知識階級者或觀念的創新者。相反的,它使他們成為一個嚴格依賴性的器官,擁有只是幻想的自主權,卻又足以跟僅是複製或執行他們權力的勞工有所區隔。這並沒有使國家免除麻煩,這一次是由於它自己產生知識階級的團體,而這個團體主張新的遊牧及政治的要求。無論如何,國家總是有需要壓抑遊牧及次要科學,假如它跟模糊本質及這個特質的運作幾何學相對立。國家這樣做,倒不是因為這些科學的內容是不明確或不完美,或因為他們具有魔術或創意的特性,而是因為他們意謂著勞工的區分,跟國家的正名相對立。這個不同不是外加的:科學或科學的觀念參與社會領域的組織,特別是誘導勞工的區分,是那門科學的一部份。國家科學跟「物質形態」息息相關,意謂著要有組織物質的形式及準備充當形式的物質。我們可經常看出,這個基模不是來自科技或生命,而是來自社會被區分為統治者與被統治者,後來又區分為知識階級及勞工。其特色是所有的物質都被指定要有內容,而所有的形式要成為表達。似乎遊牧科學跟內容與表達本身之間的關係,步調還要更加密切一致,這兩個術語彼此都涵蓋形式跟物質。因此在遊牧科學,物質永遠無法是準備好,因此是一模一樣的物質,而是基本上就是具有獨特性(組成內容的形式)。表達也不是正式的,它跟相關的特性(組成表達的物質)息息相關。如我們所見,這是完全不同的基模。對於這種情況,我們若要有初步的概念,不妨回顧一下遊牧藝術的一般特性,在此支持與裝飾之間的動態關聯,代替了物質跟形式的辯證。從遊牧科學的觀點而言,它呈現自己當作藝術,也是一種巧,勞工的區分充份存在,但是它並沒有使用形式跟物質的雙重性(即使雙重單一有對應性)。相反的,它遵照物質的獨特性跟表達的特性之間的關聯,停駐在這些關聯的水平,如論是自然或強迫的。這是工作及工作的社會領域的另一種組織。

英文珠璣

April 8, 2009

英文珠璣 03

 

觀看李敖的電視節目「語妙天下」。今天他挑了莎士比亞「威尼斯商人」的一個句子:It is a wise father that knows his own child. 莎士比亞的專家梁實秋譯作:「聰明的父親纔能認識他自己的兒子。」朱生豪譯作:「祇有聰明的父親纔會知道他自己的兒子。」李敖根據上下文及中國經典中的「父莫知己子」,證明梁實秋及朱生豪兩位大師均誤譯。

 

李敖說得沒錯,兩位莎士比亞的權威大師均誤譯這句反諷的強調句法:「即使再賢明的父親,也無法瞭解自己兒子。」。只是李敖引用的根據竟然是中國經典及上下文,而不是英文慣用的特有句型。It is…that的句法具有即使、雖然的讓步concession的意涵,其實在諺語中屢見不鮮,二十幾年前,陳雙鈞的「英文類似句型之比較」一書中,就舉了許多例子證明。

 

It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.

無論再怎樣的惡風,總有人得益。

It is a wise man that never makes mistakes.

再聰明的人,有時也會犯錯。(智者千慮,必有一失。)

It is a long lane that has no turning.

天下無不散宴席。(無論再怎麼長的巷子,也會有盡頭。)

It is a skillful workman that never blunders.

雖有巧匠,難免犯錯。

It is foul bird that dirties its own nest.

鳥無論如何齷齪,不會弄髒其巢。

It is a good horse that never stumbles, and a good wife that never grumbles.

雖是良駒,難免躓培。雖是賢妻,亦會嘮叨。

 

A P Cowie, R Mackin and Ir McCagig 所編的Oxford Dictionary of current Idiomatic English 亦有一些例子:

 

It is a long lane that knows no turning.

英文注釋是:

Nothing goes on for ever; there’s sure to be a change some time that will give relief.

無事能常存,總是會有改變,令人欣慰。

 

It’s an ill wind that blows nobody good.

英文注釋是:

Few situations, or events, are so unwelcome or disastrous that nobody at all gets any benefits or profits from them. One person’s misfortune may be another man’s good.

沒有幾樣狀況或事件是如此不受歡迎或災難,以致無人能從其中得益。某人的不幸,恰是他人的好處。

 

 

 

英文珠璣 02

April 8, 2009

英文珠璣 02

 

p301

 

我們的遭遇的試煉與戰勝一切雖是獨一無二,卻又普遍存在。

 

Our trials and triumphs became at once unique and universal.

 

“ at once…and” 的句型是both…and at the same time…and既是、、、又是

 

如果部份的我還是感覺到,星期天的教會洗禮在簡化我們的處境,它會遮蓋掉或壓抑存在我們之間的真正衝突,還有賴行動進一步證明:我同樣第一次感覺到,我們的內在精神已經在萌芽,我們可以有更大的夢想。

 

And if a part of me continued to feel that this Sunday communion sometimes simplified our condition, that it could sometimes disguise or suppress the very real conflicts among us and would fulfill its promise only through action, I also felt for the first time how that spirit carried within it, nascent, incomplete, the possibility of moving beyond our narrow dreams.

 

“ if” 在上下文的語意應該是讓步句,有「即使」、「雖然」之義。 “ fulfill its promise only through action” 只有透過行動才能實踐它所許諾的理想。

 

P289

崔西站起來,把裙子拉好。「我應該警告你,牧師有時就喜歡像個傻瓜。」

 

Tracy said, standing up and straightening out her skirt, “ I should have warned you that Rev likes to act silly sometimes.”

 

“ should” 後面接的是完成式,而非原形動詞,表示過去事實相反的意味,直譯是「我本來應該先警告你。」或意譯「我剛才忘了警告你,牧師有時喜歡裝瘋賣傻。」

 

p389

它坐落在第九十五街一個熱鬧的住宅區。

It sat flush on Ninety-fifth Street in a mostly residential neighborhood.

 

“ flush” 的原意是正坐落squarely 或相同平面 in the same plane,顯然跟熱鬧無關,何況附近大都是住宅區。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

英文珠璣 01

April 8, 2009

雄伯手記980408

 

最近心血來潮,翻譯了幾篇哲學家德勒茲的千高台,原是幫忙自己閱讀時觀念的澄清,想不到引起的迴響還不少。還有一位高手以法文對照,指正了我誤譯的地方,如將圍棋Go誤譯為跳棋,西方的國家人occidental man of State  誤譯為國家的西方人。

 

前兩個星期開始參加的學校退休老師的讀書會,讀的是美國總統的那本「歐巴馬夢想之路」。我買了一本英文本逐句參照,卻發現這本由名人名家具名推薦的翻譯還是跟原文有些出入。心想何不將它拿來當句子分析的講解材料?

 

P301

希望,就像是漢娜一樣的豎琴手!努力讓微弱的音符上天堂。她敢於希望,她有勇氣,只用一根琴弦,贊美上帝,她已經擺脫痛苦

 

Hope! Like Hannah, that harpist,is looking upwards, a few faint notes floating upwards towards the heavens. She dares to hope…She has the audacity…to make music …and praise God…on the one string…she has left!

 

英文的floating 只是飄浮而已,跟努力何關? on the one string …she has left on the string which she has left 拆開的省略句, which 代替the string has 的受詞,left在此是過去分詞,當She has one string left句的受詞補語,不是在現在完成式,意思是剩下,不是離開或擺脫,跟痛苦沒有什麼關係。

 

P235

我們總是因別人的眼光動彈不得,總是擔心別人會發現我們內心的匱乏。

 

We had been frozen by the sight of the other, unable to escape the suspicion that under examination our true selves would be found wanting.

 

這裡的the other是指歐巴馬跟父親互為兩人的對方one…the other,而不是別人others。父子彼此生活在惶惑不安的心靈疏離當中,無法告白傾訴,因為一看到對方the sight of the other,彼此的內心就凍僵起來。

 

P261

「跟你說,兄弟,世界只有一個地址。」

「你是說,世界很小,哈。」

 

“ Telling you, man, the world is a place.”

“ Say, the world is a place, huh.”

 

“ The world is a place.” 原是藍調音樂或爵士樂的歌詞 “ I’m going to find a place in the world”借喻而來,描述青年男女到處飄泊流浪,追求使命mission,尋找自己身心或靈魂可以安頓、或安身立命、或有歸屬感的一席之地。若譯成「世界總會有我的安頓之處」似乎較能讓人理解,也跟後面的問答較能呼應。

 

“Whole panorama of life out there. Crazy shit going on. You got to ask yourself, is this kinda stuff happening elsewhere? Is there any precedent for all this shit? You ever ask yourself that?”

“ The world’s a place,” I repeated.