Deleuze 18 德勒茲

Deleuze 18 德勒茲 千高台

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

Memories of a Spinozist, I

史賓諾莎的回憶

 

Substantial forms have been critiqued in many different ways. Spinoza’s approach is radical: Arrive at elements that no longer have either form or function, that are abstract in this sense even though they are perfectly real. They are distinguished solely by movement and rest, slowness and speed. They are not atoms, in other words, finite elements still endowed with form. Nor are they indefinitely divisible. They are infinitely small, ultimate parts of an actual infinity, laid out on the same plane of consistency or composition.

 

實質的形式已經受到各方面的批判。史賓諾莎的方法是激進的:直逼到不再有形式或功用的元素,這些元素在這個意義是抽象的,即使他們非常真實。只有憑藉動作跟休息,緩慢跟速度,才能區別出這些元素。他們不是原子,換言之,他們不是依舊具有形式的有限元素。他們也不是可無限分解下去。他們是真實永恆的小之又小的最後的部分,展延在一致性或組成的相同平面。

 

They are not defined by their number since they always come in infinities. However, depending on their degree of speed or the relation of movement and rest into which they enter, they belong to a given Individual, which may itself be part of another Individual governed by another, more complex, relation into which their parts enter. Thus each individual is an infinite multiplicity, and the whole of Nature is a multiplicity of perfectly individuated multiplicities.

 

這些元素無法以數量來定義,因為他們總是包含無限。可是,依靠速度的快慢,及他們所進入的動作跟休息的關係,他們屬於明確的個體,這個體本身可能是另外一個被其他更複雜關係所統轄的個體的部分,他們都參與這個關係。因此,每個個體都是ㄧ個無限的多重性,整個大自然就是一個非常個體化的多重性的多重性。

 

The plane of consistency of Nature is like an immense Abstract Machine, abstract yet real and individual; its pieces are the various assemblages and individuals, each of which groups together an infinity of particles entering into an infinity of more or less interconnected relations. There is therefore a unity to the plane of nature, which applies equally to the inanimate and the animate, the artificial and the natural.  This plane has nothing to do with a form or a figure, nor with a design or function.

 

大自然一致性的平面就像是一台巨大的抽象機器,抽象但是真實而個體化。他的零件就是各種裝配跟個體,每一個都聚集無限的分子,進入一個無限而互相關聯的關係。大自然的平面因此有個一致性,可同樣應用到無生命及有生命,人為及自然。這個平面跟形式或圖形無關,跟設計或功用也無關。

 

Its unity has nothing to do with a ground buried deep within things, nor with an end or a project in the mind of God. Instead, it is a plane upon which everything is laid out, and which is like the intersection of all forms, the machine of all functions; its dimensions, however, increase with those of the multiplicities of individualities it cuts across. It is a fixed plane, upon which things are distinguished from one another only by speed and slowness.

 

它的一致性跟深藏於事物內部的地面無關,跟上帝心目中所構想的目標或計畫也無關。代替的,它是一個每一樣東西都展延出來的平面,就像是各種形式的交會,各種功用的機器,可是,它的向量會隨著它所交會的個體的多重性的向量而增加。這是一個固定的平面,只有憑藉速度跟緩慢,事物彼此才能被區別出來。

 

A plane of immanence or univocality opposed to analogy . The One is said with a single meaning of all the multiple. Being expresses in a single meaning all that differs. What we are talking about is not the unity of substance but the infinity of the modifications that are part of one another on this unique plane of life.

 

內在性或單一性的平面跟類比對立。大宇宙據說有一個包含所有多重性的單一意義。存在以這個單一意義表達各種差異。我們所思考的不是物質的一致性,而是在這個獨特的生命平面上,彼此相屬的各種調適的無限性。

 

The never-ending debate between Cuvier and Geoffroy Hilaire: both agree at least in denouncing resemblances, or imaginary, sensible analogies, but in Cuvier, scientific definition concerns the relations between organs, and between organs and functions. Cuvier thus takes analogy to the scientific stage, making it an analogy of proportionality. The unity of the plane, according to him, can only be a unity of analogy, therefore a transcendent unity that cannot be realized without fragmenting into distinct branches, according to irreducible, uncrossable, heterogeneous compositions. Baer would later add; according to noncommunicating types of development and differentiation. The plane is a hidden plane of organization, a structure or genesis. Geoffroy has an entirely different point of view because he goes beyond organs and functions to abstract elements he terms “ anatomical,” even to particles, pure materials that enter into various combinations, forming a given organ  and assuming a given function depending on their degree of speed or slowness.

 

古比跟喬夫洛不斷地在爭論:兩人至少都同意抨擊類同、或非真實的似乎合理的類比。但是古比認為,科學的定義關係到器官之間,器官與功用之間的關係。他因此將類比當著是科學的階段,使成為比率的類比。依照他的說法,平面的一致性只能是類比的一致性,因此,一個超驗的一致性必定要依照不可化簡,不可越過的多樣行組合,零碎成為不同的枝節,才能被實現。貝爾後來補充說:要依照發展及延異不相溝通的方式而定。這個平面是組織的隱藏平面,一個結構或開端。喬夫洛則有不同的觀點,因為他超越器官跟功用,直逼他所稱為的「解剖」的抽象元素,甚至到達分子,進入各種組合的純粹材料,形成一個特定器官,擔負起一個特定的功用,依照速度或緩慢的程度而定。

 

Speed and slowness, movement and rest, tardiness and rapidity subordinate not only the forms of structure but also the types of development. This approach later reappears in an evolutionist framework., with Perrier”s tachygenesis and differential rates of growth in allometry, species as kinematic entities that are either precocious or retarded. ( Even the question of fertility is less one of form and function than speed; do the paternal chromosomes arrive early enough to be incorporated into the nuclei?)

In any case, there is a pure plane of immanence, univocality, composition, upon which everything is given, upon which unformed elements and materials dance that enter into this or that individuated assemblage depending on their connections, their relations of movement.

 

速度及緩慢,動作及休息,遲緩及快速不但隸屬結構的形式,而且也隸屬發展的方式。這個方法後來又出現在進化論的架構上,培瑞的異速起源論及有機體成長的不同速率,將品種視為動力學的實體,不是早熟,就是遲緩(即使是繁殖的問題也不是形式跟功用,而是速度的問題。父親的遺傳因子到達得足夠早,可以合併入卵子裡嗎?)無論如何,每一樣東西都有一個純粹的內在性、單一性及組合的平面,沒有形式的元素跟材料可以在上面跳舞,只有憑藉速度才能彼此區別,依靠他們的關聯及動作的關係,而進入各種個體化的裝配。

 

A fixed plane of life upon which everything stirs, slows down or accelerates. A single abstract Animal for all the assemblages that effectuate it. A unique plane of consistency or composition for the cephalopod and the vertebrate; for the vertebrate to become an octopus or Cuttlefish, all it would have to do is fold itself in two fast enough to fuse the elements of the halves of its back together, then bring its pelvis up to the nape of its neck and gather its limbs together, into one of its extremities, like “ a clown who throws his head and shoulders back and walks on his head and hands.” Plication.

 

這是個每一樣東西都騷動其上,緩慢或加速度的固定的生命平面。一隻獨特的抽象的動物作各種裝配,來使自己產生效率。一個獨特的一致性及組合的平面,給頭足類動物及脊椎動物。為了要讓脊椎動物成為章魚或烏賊,它所必須做的就是快速將自己摺疊成兩半,將背後的半段融合在一起,然後將骨盆提升到頸項的位置,將四肢聚合成ㄧ個各種極端的組合,就像是一位小丑頭肩倒立,靠著頭跟手行走,這叫摺疊功。

 

It is no longer a question of organs and functions, and of a transcendent Plane that can preside over their organization only by means of analogical relations and types of divergent development. It is a question not of organization but of composition; not of development or differentiation but of movement and rest, speed and slowness. It is a question of elements and particles, which do or do not arrive fast enough to effect a passage, a becoming or jump on the same plane of pure immanence . And if there are in fact, rifts between assemblages, it is not by virtue of their essential irreducibility but rather because there are always elements that do not arrive on time, or arrive after everything is over; thus it is necessary to pass through fog, to cross voids, to have lead times and delays, which are themselves part of the plane of immanence. Even the failures are part of the plane. We must try to conceive of this world in which a single fixed plane—which we shall call a plane of absolute immobility or absolute movement—in traversed by nonformal elements of relative speed that enter this or that individuated assemblage depending on their degrees of speed and slowness. A plane of consistency peopled by anonymous matter, by infinite bits of impalpable matter entering into varying connection.

 

這不再是器官及功用的問題,因為超驗平面只有憑藉類比的關係跟多樣性發展的方式,才能掌控他們的組織。這是一個元素跟分子的問題,因為它們沒有足夠快速到達,可以造成一個過程,一個生成,或純粹內在性的相同平面的跳躍。假如裝配之間事實上有跳躍或分裂存在,那不是憑藉著基本的不可化簡,而是總是有一些元素沒有準時到達,或是事過境遷之後才到達。因此,無可避免地要經歷過迷霧,越過空無,歷經艱辛跟耽誤,這些本身就是內在性平面的一部分。即使是失敗都是平面的一部分。我們必須設法想像這個世界是一個單一的固定平面,我們將稱之為絕對不動,或絕對移動的平面,讓不同速度的非正式的元素旅越過,依照他們速度及緩慢的程度,進入個體化的裝配。一個一致性的平面,被匿名的物質所駐紮,這些無數不可觸及的物質形成各種不同的連接。

 

Children are Spinozists. When Little Hans talks about a “ peepee-maker,” he is referring not an organ or an organic function but basically to a material, in other words, to an aggregate whose elements vary according to its connections, its relations of movement and rest, the different individuated assemblages it enters. Does a girl have a peepee-maker? The boy says yes, and not by analogy, nor ion order to conjure away  a fear of castration. It is obvious that girls have a peepee-maker because they effectively pee: a machinic functioning rather than an organic function. Quite simply, the same material has different connections, different relations of movement and rest, enters different assemblages in the case of the boy and the girl ( a girl does not pee standing or into the distance).

 

小孩都是史賓諾莎主義者。當小漢斯談到「尿尿製造噐」,他提到的不是一個器官或器官的功用,而基本上是提到一個物質,換言之,提到一個聚合體,它的元素會有變化,依照它的連接,它的動作跟休息的關係,以及它所進入的不同的個體化裝配。一個女孩有尿尿製造器嗎?這男孩說有,但不是作為類比,也不是為了驅除被去势的恐懼。很明顯的,女孩有尿尿製造器,因為她們有效地尿尿:這是一個機械式的功用,而不是一個器官的功用。顯而易見的,相同的物質會有不同的連接,不同的動作跟休息的關係,依照男孩跟女孩的情形而有不同的裝配(女孩不會站著尿尿或朝遠處射尿)。

 

Does a locomotive have a peepee-maker? Yes, in yet another machinic assemblage. Chairs don’t have them: but that is because the elements of the chair were not able to integrate this material into their relations, or decomposed the relation with that material to the point that it yielded something else, a rung, for example. It has been noted that for children an organ has “ a thousand vicissitudes,” that it is “ difficult to localize, difficult to identify, it is in turn a bone, an engine, excrement, the baby, a hand, daddy’s heart…” This is not at all because the organ is experienced as a part-object.

 

火車頭有尿尿製造器嗎?有的,那是另ㄧ種機械的裝配。椅子沒有尿尿製造器,但那是因為椅子的元素不能夠合併這個物質成為他們的關係,或瓦解這個物質到達可以產生某件其他像是梯階的東西的程度。有人注意到,對於小孩而言,一個器官擁有「千變萬化」,很難固定及辨認,它有時是骨頭,是引擎,是糞便,是嬰兒,是手,是爸爸的心臟等等。這倒不是因為器官被經驗到當著部份物體。

 

It is because the organ is exactly what its elements make it according to their relation of movement or rest, and the way in which this relation combines with or splits off from that of neighboring elements. This is not an animism, any more than it is mechanism; rather, it is universal machinism: a plane of consistency occupied by an immense abstract machine comprising an infinite number of assemblages. Children’s questions are poorly understood if they are not seen as question-machines; that is why indefinite articles play so important a rule in these questions( a belly, a child, a horse, a chair, “ how is a person made?” Spinozism is the becoming-child of the philosopher. We call the longitude of a body the particle aggregates belonging to that body in a given relation; these aggregates are part of each other depending on the composition of the relation that defines the individuated assemblage of the body.

 

這是因為器官確實是它的元素所組成,依照它們動作跟休息的關係,以及這個關係跟附近元素連接或分裂的方式。這個不是動物論,也不是機械論。相反的,這是舉世皆準的機器論:一個一致性的平面,被ㄧ個巨大的抽象機器所佔據,組成無窮盡的裝配。小孩的問題,若不是當著問題機器來看待,是無法徹底明白的。那就是為什麼有無窮盡的東西在他們的問題在扮演重要的角色(肚子、小孩、馬、椅子、及「人是怎麼製造的?」)。史賓諾莎主義是哲學家的生成小孩。我們稱呼身體的經緯度為分子聚合體,在特定的關係上屬於那個身體、這些聚合體是彼此的一部分,依照身體個體化裝配的關係的組合而定。

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