Concerning Rebirth 07

Concerning Rebirth 07

關於重生

By Carl Gustiv Jung 榮格

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

  d. Identification with a group. We shall now discuss another form of transformation experience which I would call identification with a group. More accurately speaking, it is the identification of an individual with a number of people who, as a group, have a collective experience of transformation. This special psychological situation must not be confused with participation in a transformation rite, which, though performed before an audience, does not in any way depend upon group identity or necessarily gives rise to it.

   第四,對團體的認同。我們現在將討論另一種轉變經驗的形式,我稱之為對團體的認同。說得更準確些,就是個人認同於許多人,這些人聚在一起擁有轉變的集體經驗。這個特別的心理狀況一定不要跟參與轉變儀式混為一談。後者雖然是在觀眾面前表演,絲毫沒有依靠團體認同,或必然會產生團體認同。

    To experience transformation in a group and to experience it in oneself are two totally different things. If any considerable group of persons are united and identified with one another by a particular frame of mind, the resultant transformation experience bears only a very remote resemblance to the experience of individual transformation. A group experience takes place on a lower level of consciousness than the experience of an individual. This is due to the fact that, when many people gather together to share one common emotion, the total psyche emerging from the group is below the level of the individual psyche.

   在團體中經驗到轉變,跟在自己內心經驗到轉變,完全是兩碼事。假如任何團體中的人由於某種特別心,互相團結認同,結果所造成的轉變,跟個人轉變的經驗只是大約相似。團體經驗發生在比個人經驗較低層的意識。這是由於許多人聚在一起分享共同情感,從團體所產生的全部心理層次上低於個人心理。

If it is a very large group, the collective psyche will be more like the psyche of an animal, which is the reason why the ethical attitude of large organizations is always doubtful. The psychology of a large crowd inevitably sinks to the level of mob psychology. If, therefore, I have a so-called collective experience as a member of a group, it takes place on a lower level of consciousness than if I had the experience by myself alone. This is why this group experience is very much more frequent than an individual experience of transformation It is also much easier to achieve, because the presence of so many people together exerts great suggestive force. The individual in a crowd easily becomes the victim of his own suggestibility. It is only necessary for something to happen, for instance a proposal backed by the whole crowd, and we too are all for it, even if the proposal is immoral .l In the crowd one feels no responsibility, also no fear

假如那是一個大團體,集體心理將會更像動物的心理。那就是為什麼大組織的倫理態度總是讓人置疑。大群體的心理學無可避免會墮落成為群眾心理學。因此,假如我有一個所謂許多人的集體經驗,那是發生在比我個人單獨所經驗到的較低層次的意識。那就是為什麼這個團體經驗,比個人的轉變經驗更常見。團體經驗比較容易達到,因為那麼多人聚集在一起,會產生很強的暗示力量。在群眾中的個人很容易成為自己暗示的受害者。只要暗示一下,就可讓事情發生,例如整個群眾所支持的建議,即使這個建議是不道德的,我們也都會贊同。在群眾中,我們沒有責任,也沒有恐懼。

Thus identification with the group is a simple and easy path to follow, but the group experience goes no deeper than the level of one’s own mind in that state. It does work a change in you, but the change does not last. On the contrary, you must have continual recourse to mass intoxication in order to consolidate the experience and your belief in it. But as soon as you are removed from the crowd, you are a different person again and unable to reproduce the previous state of mind. The mass is swayed by participation mystique, which is nothing other than an unconscious identity.

認同於團體是輕而易舉的做法,但是團體經驗在心理層次上,比個人經驗較為浮面。它雖然造成你內心的轉變,但是這種轉變維持不久。相反的,你必須不斷地訴諸於團體激情,才能凝聚你的經驗跟信仰。但是只要你一離開團體,你又成為另一個人,無法再複製先前的心態。群眾被參與的神秘所影響,那道地是無意識的認同。

Supposing, for example, you go to the theater: glance meets glance, everybody observes everybody else, so that all feels borne along by the universal wave of identity with others. It may be a pleasant feeling—one sheep among ten thousand! Again, if I feel that this crowd is a great and wonderful unit, I am a hero, exalted along with the group. When I am myself again, I discover that I am Mrs. So-and-so, and that I live in such and such a street, on the third floor. I also find that the whole affair was really most delightful, and I hope it will take place again tomorrow so that I may once more feel myself to be a whole nation, which is much better than being just plain Mr. X .

例如,你去看戲。眼光彼此相遇,每個人互相觀察,好像被互相認同的浪潮帶著前行。那感覺不錯,成千上萬綿羊中的一隻!再一次,假如我覺得這個群眾是更大更好的單位,我是英雄,跟著群眾被推崇。可是,當我單獨時,我發現我只是某某人,住在某某街,第三樓。我也發現整個過程非常令人愉快,我希望明天還會再發生,我會自再一次感受到自己成為一個完整的國,那感覺比僅僅是平凡的某先生好。

Since this is such an easy and convenient way of raising one’s personality to a more exalted rank, mankind has always formed groups which made collective experiences of transformation—often of an ecstatic nature—possible. The regressive identification with lower and more primitive states of consciousness is invariably accompanied by a heightened sense of life; hence the quickening effect of regressive identifications with half-animal ancestors in the Stone Age.

   因為這是如此輕而易舉的方式,用來抬高自己的人格到較崇高的地位,人類總是組成團體,使集體的轉變經驗,通常還是狂喜的經驗,成為可能。這種退化地認同於較低較原始的意識狀態,必然陪伴著強烈的生命之感,因此很快地會造成認同於石器時代半人半動物的祖先。

    The inevitable psychological regression within the group is partially counteracted by ritual, that is to say through a cult ceremony which makes the solemn performance of sacred event the center of group activity and prevents the crowd from relapsing into unconscious instinctuality. By engaging the individual’s interest and attention, the ritual makes it possible for him to have a comparatively individual experience even within the group and so to remain more or less conscious. But if there is no relation to a centre which expresses the unconscious through its symbolism, the mass psyche inevitably becomes the hypnotic focus of fascination, drawing everyone under its spell. That is why masses are always breeding-grounds of psychic epidemics, the events in Germany being a classic example of this.

    在團體裡無可避免的心理的退化,部份可用儀式來對抗,換言之,透過膜拜典禮,使神聖事件的嚴肅表演成為團體活動的中心,可阻止群眾不要又退回到無意識的本能。以吸引個人的興趣跟注意,儀式使人能夠在團體裡擁有比較個人的經驗,因此可以保持在意識的狀態。但是假如跟透過符號象徵所表達無意識的中心沒有關聯,群眾心理必然會變成著迷的催眠力量,使每個人著魔一般。那就是為什麼群眾總是心理流行病的淵藪,德國的事件就是一個經典例子。

    It will be objected to this essentially negative evaluation of mass psychology that there are also positive experiences, for instance a positive enthusiasm which spurs the individual to noble deeds, or an equally positive feeling of human solidarity. Facts of this kind should not be denied. The group can give the individual a courage, a bearing, and a dignity which may easily get lost in isolation.

對於群眾心理學做這樣基本上是負面的評估,可能有人反對,因為它也有正面的經驗,例如,積極的熱誠激發個人從事高尚的行為,或是同樣積極的感覺凝聚人類。這些事實不應該被否認。團體能夠給個人勇氣,動力及尊嚴。這些在個人孤立自處時很容易失去。

It can awaken within him the memory of being a man among men. But that does not prevent something else from being added which he would not possess as an individual. Such unearned gifts may seem a special favor of the moment, but the in the long run there is a danger of the gift becoming a loss, since human nature has a weak habit of taking gifts for granted; in times of necessity we demand them as a right instead of making the effort to obtain them ourselves.

    它能夠會喚醒個人回想到身為群體的一份子。但是團體常會賦予他身為個人本不應享有的東西。這些不應得的禮物當時來看是特別恩賜,但是最後禮物常會有喪失的危險,因為人的劣根性是常將禮物視為當然。當急需時,我們把它們當權利來要求,而不是自己努力去得到它們。

One sees this, unfortunately, only too plainly in the tendency to demand everything from the State, without reflecting that the State consists of those very individuals who make the demands. The logical development of this tendency leads to Communism, where each individual enslaves the community and the latter is represented by a dictator, the slaw-owner. All primitive tribes characterized by a communistic order of society also have a chieftain over them with unlimited powers. The Communist State is nothing other than in absolute monarchy in which there are no subjects, but only serfs.

不幸地,我們很清楚看到,我們對於國家的要求就有這個傾向,而沒有考慮到國家由人人都要求的眾人組成。這個傾向的邏輯發展會導致共產主義,每個人都成為社會的奴隸,而社會又是由獨裁者,奴隸的主人所代表。所有原始部落的特徵是共產式的社會,有一位酋長用無限的權力統治他們。共產國家道道地地就是絕對的帝王權威,沒有臣民,只有奴隸。

P47—p48

Concerning Rebirth 07

關於重生

By Carl Gustiv Jung 榮格

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

   

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: