The Psychology of Gravity 04

The Psychology of Gravity 04

地心引力的心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

  “ Common sense,” which is not necessarily the same as “ psychological sense,” may be left unconvinced by such a claim. Common sense requires visible evidence. It is all too easy to believe that a fall has caused psychological scarring, only if the child’s forehead has been scarred as well. But surely physical consequences count for little when the cause is experienced on a primal level, like a sudden internal movement never previously experienced.

   「普通常識」未必跟「心理常識」相同。話雖如此,我們依舊半信半疑。普通常識要求看得見的證據。摔倒曾經造成心理的創傷,我們都輕易相信,條件是小孩的前額也有傷痕。但是如果經驗到的原因是原始層次,像是以前從未經驗過的內部動作,身體的後果並不重要。

Montessori compares the care given to a young woman who has just given birth with the lack of attention paid to her newborn child, which “ is lifted from its cradle and raised to the shoulder of the adult that is to carry it, then lowered again to the bed at its mother’s die.” This, as writes, “ corresponds to what it would be like to be raised and lowered by an elevator out of control.” The author’s advice is to keep movements slow and gradual, so that no blueprint for dizziness is impressed upon a consciousness still sleeping but already aware.

蒙特索瑞比較,對一位剛分娩少婦的照顧,跟對新生嬰兒的粗心。嬰兒「被從搖籃舉起,抬到要接抱它的大人肩膀高,然後再被放下到它母親旁邊。」她寫到:「這等於是它搭乘失控的電梯上下。」作者的意思是動作要慢要緩,這樣才不會留下暈眩的印象鐫刻在依舊沉睡但是已經有知覺的意識上。

    Between an imaginary fall like mine in Strasbourg and a “ fall” so subtle and so lacking in apparent consequence as that described by Montessori, many intermediary falls with many variants are easily discovered. In particular, among these intermediary falls I would include “ literary falls,” abyss one has read, each a virtual fall with its own lesson in unhappiness. These work on the reader’s unconscious randomly, eventually giving form to the masochistic impulse expressed by Goethe: “ There is hardly any true pleasure that does not begin at the point of vertigo.”

    除了我在史拉伯那次想像自已摔落,跟蒙特索瑞所描述的嬰兒被舉起又表面無恙地放下,我們還可以很容易找到中間許多不同樣式。在這些中間的墮落樣式中,我特別要提到「文學的墮落」,我們曾經閱讀過的深淵。每一個都是虛擬的墮落,啟示人生的不幸。這些墮落任意在我們的無意識醞釀,最後形成歌德所描述的自虐衝動:「沒有一種真實的快樂不是從暈眩開始。」

   Al these real-life experiences have one trait in common: falling opens up space, deepens the abyss. An immense space is not at all necessary for a deep imaginary fall. A dynamic image, subtle and discrete, will frequently suffice to send one’s entire being into a tailspin; in other words, even the most delicate dynamic image may be seen to possess overwhelming power if we are able to observe it as it first comes to life, at the moment of psychological inscription. Sometimes a great poet manages to convey the hypnotic powers of vertigo in a few words.

     所有這些真實人生的經驗有一個相同特徵:墮落展開空間,深化深淵。深度的想像的墮落根本不需要廣裘空間。微妙而分歧的動力意象,往往就足夠使一個人的整個存在慌亂無措,換言之,即使最微細的動力意象都可認為擁有強大的力量,假如我們能夠在它剛成形時,在鐫刻在心理的時刻,觀察到它。有時候一位偉大的詩人能夠用幾個字就傳達暈眩的催眠力量。

 In Air and Dreams I showed with what artfulness a poet like Edgar Allen Poe employed dynamic images of this kind. Poe understood instinctively that literary vertigo must begin with only a slight queasiness, but a queasiness that is in some sense inner and oneiric, like a heart flutter. A literary fall described in too much detail, an abyss overly charged with imaginary, awakens divergent interests, exciting the reader for whom one would rather evoke images of ontical effacement.

 在「空氣與夢」書中,我曾指出詩人愛倫坡何使用動力意象這樣的技巧。愛倫坡能地瞭解到,文學的暈眩必須開始於輕微的嘔吐,這種嘔吐某個意義來說是內在跟夢幻的,就像是心悸。詳盡描述的文學墮落,就像是意象繽紛的深淵,喚醒各種興趣,激發讀者寧可招喚渾然忘我的意象。

 An excessively imaged literary fall interferes with our experience of the dynamic of the abyss, to be distinguished from its geography. For, in effect, to explore the abyss, to enter underground reaches with a miner’s lamp, there to do battle with monsters, is to deal with one’s own feat discursively. Nightmares of falling, by contrast, are simple and terrible. Every terrifying fall is a terror of the most primordial sort, a terror whose only fate is to grow. The dramatic poem of the fall must be, in every verse, both a beginning and an acceleration. It seeks to describe the constant becoming of calamity, but not necessarily the accumulation of calamities.

 過度意象繽紛的文學墮落干擾到我們在深淵的動力經驗,跟地理上的墮落不同。事實上,要探險深淵,提著礦工的油燈進入地下的領域,跟那裡的惡魔格鬥,等於是要發揮我們的各項才能。比較起來,墮落的夢魘可是單純而可怕。每個可怕的墮落,都是最原始的恐懼,其命運最成長。每本詩集,墮落的生動的詩篇既是開始,又是加速度。詩設法描述災難的不斷形成,但是未必是災難的累積。

Sometimes a writer will convey a sense of deep fall while working a related image, executing a “ dynamic variation” on the fundamental “ dynamic theme.” In such a case, the impression of a deep fall will be best communicated if the reader is left with unitary, homogenous impression. Rough and tumble, avalanching falls too often return us to the world of objects. There is a passage in Tieck’s William Lowell which demonstrates the virtues of a uniformity of impression. Tieck lets us experience a fall with our ears. He manages to express the pure, sonorous tonality of a plunge into the abyss. The annihilating nothingness of the depths is audible in the sound of a voice choked off, diminishing and, at a terrifying limit, fading out entirely…A sound that manages to be at once lugubrious and distant completes this fall of being.

有時作家在從事相關的意象,對於基本的「動力主題」執行「動力變化」,會傳達深度的墮落感。在此情況,假如讀者處於單一跟同質的情境,深度墮落的印象會溝通得最好。雪崩般的墮落,滾滾而下,往往會使我們回到客體的世界。堤客的「威廉、羅威」證明印象一致性的優點。堤客讓我們用耳朵經驗到墮落。他成功地表達,縱身跳下深淵那種純粹而響亮的聲音。聲音哽咽,但是深淵的毀滅性的空無清晰可聞,令人驚駭,然後完全消失。此聲音既哀傷又飄渺,完成存在的墮落。

As we read sympathetically, our soul becomes an ear reaching out across a well of silence. This state of anxious listening to the disappearance of a fellow creature. Tieck has us experience as a sort of Schmelzen of molten release. The space brought to life by this sound deepens, expands, then melts away and dies. All the tensions of the abyss give way at once, for a voice has fallen silent. Silence suffices to create a void, the void below. In place of the contented silence that follows the delicate silken sounds on high, one hears now a globular and leaden silence rolling in the gravity of a dying voice…But the passage must be read in its original German for the beneficial effects of its properly sonorous literary fall to be experienced in full.

當我們同情閱讀,我們靈魂變成耳朵,伸展越過沉默之井。堤客讓我們經驗到,這種焦慮地傾聽一位同胞消失的狀況,像是岩漿迸發。這個聲音所激發生命力的空間深化,擴展,然後溶化而死亡。所有的深淵的緊張立刻為之舒解,因為聲音已經變成沉默。沉默足以創造空無,下面的空無。坦然以對的沉默跟隨在從上天傳來微妙音之後。替而代之,我們現在聽到滾球鉛般重的沉默,滾動於垂死聲音的地心引力。但是這篇文章,我們得讀德文原文才能充份經驗到到響亮的文學墮落所產生的效果。 P267—p269The Psychology of Gravity 04地心引力的心理學By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉Translated by Springhero 雄伯https://springhero.wordpress.com32hsiung@pchome.com.tw   

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