Uncanny Strangeness

Freud: The Uncanny Strangeness

佛洛伊德:神秘的陌生感

Explicitly given limited scope, as it was at first connected with esthetic problems and emphasized texts by E.T. A. Hoffmann, Freud’s Das Unheimliche ( 1919) surreptitiously goes beyond that framework and the psychological phenomenon of “ uncanny strangeness” as well, in order to acknowledge itself as an investigation into anguish generally speaking and, in a fashion that is even more universal, into the dynamics of the unconscious.

佛洛伊德的在1919年提出「潛意識觀」,最初是跟霍夫曼的「沙人」的小說所強調的美學問題有關,很明確地限制於某個範圍,但是後來卻不知不覺超越那個範圍以及「神秘的陌生感」的心理現象。他要自承是在研究一般所謂的「痛楚」,而且用更加普遍性的方式,研究「無意識的動力學」。

Indeed, Freud wanted to demonstrate at the outset, on the basis of a semantic study of the German adjective heimlich and its antonym unheimlich that a negative meaning close to that of the antonym is already tied to the positive term Heimlich, “ friendily comfortable,” which would also signify “ concealed , kept from sight,” “ deceitful and malicious,” behind someone’s back.”

的確,佛洛伊德一開頭想要根據德文形容詞heimlich 跟它的相反詞unhimlich

證明,在正面意義的詞語heimlich「安詳舒適」,本身已經具有類似相反詞的負面的意義,意謂著「隱藏、不為人所知」「欺瞞而不懷好意」「在人背後」。

Thus, in the very word heimlich, the familiar and intimate are reversed into their opposites, brought together with the contrary meaning of “ uncanny strangeness” harbored in unheimlich.

因此,本是熟悉親密的「安詳舒適」這個詞語,被倒轉成它的相反詞,跟不安詳舒適所具有「神秘的陌生感」相同並列。

Such an immanence of the strange within the familiar is considered as an etymological proof of the psychoanalytic hypothesis according to which “ the uncanny is that class of the frightening which leads back to what is known of old and long familiar,” which as far as Freud is concerned, was confirmed by Schelling who said that “ everything is unheimlich that ought to have remained secret and hidden but has come to light.”

在熟悉之中,陌生之感卻常在,這被認為精神分析學學說在字源學的證據:「神秘令人害怕,追溯其本源卻我們熟悉已久之物」。佛洛伊德先發其言,哲學家

謝林則證實「無意識本應該保持秘密及隱藏,卻讓其招搖在外。」

Consequently therefore, that which is strangely uncanny would be that which was ( the past tense is important) familiar and, under certain conditions ( which ones?) emerges. A first step was taken that removed the uncanny strangeness from the outside, where fright had anchored it, to locate it inside, not inside the familiar considered as one’s own and proper, but the familiar potentially tainted with strangeness and referred ( beyond its imaginative origin) to an improper past. The other is my ( “ own and proper” ) conscious.

因此結果是:現在神秘陌生感過去其實是熟悉,並且在某種條件下就會出現。

我們首先採取的步驟是從外面驅除神秘的陌生感,因為恐懼駐紮在那裡,為了在內部找到它,不是在被認為是它本體的熟悉的內部,而是在潛在沾染陌生的熟悉部份,被認為是不是本體的過去。他者就是我的意識,反成為自己的本體。

What “ familiar”? What “ past” ? In order to answer such question, Freud’s thought played a strange trick on the esthetic and psychological notion of “ uncanny strangeness,” which had been initially posited, and rediscovered the analytical notions of anxiety, double, repetition, and unconscious.

什麼是「熟悉」?什麼是「過去」?為了回答這個問題,佛洛伊德的思想對於「神秘的陌生」的美學及心理觀念,扮演一個奇怪的詭計。它早先被提出來,然後在「憂慮」「雙重人」「重複」「無意識」等分析觀念中,又重新被提起。

The uncanny strangeness that is aroused in Nathaniel ( in Haffmann’s tale, The Sandman) by the paternal figure and its substitute , as well as references to the eyes, is related to the castration anxiety experienced by the child, which was repressed but surfaced again on the occasion of a state of love.

神秘的陌生感在霍夫曼的小說「沙人」的主角Nathaniel身上被喚起,因為父權的人物和代理,以及提到眼睛。這些都跟小孩所經驗到的受到壓抑的去勢憂慮有關。雖然被壓抑,但是在戀愛的場合又會浮上表面。

P182

Strangers to ourselves by Julia Kristeva

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

           

By Kristiva

The Strange Within Us 內心的陌生感

 

The Uncanny would thus be the royal way ( but in the sense of the court, not of the king) by means of which Freud introduced the fascinated rejection of the other at the heart of that “ our self,” so poised and dense, which precisely no longer exists ever since Freud and shows itself to be a strange land of borders and othernesses ceaselessly constructed and deconstructed. Strangely enough, there is no mention of foreigners in the Unheimliche.

神秘因此是直達天聽的皇家之路(借用捷徑的說法,跟國王無涉)。佛洛伊德以此介紹我們內心的「自我」以「他者」的姿態的被排斥出來,令我們深感興趣。

自佛洛伊德之後,泰然自若的「自我」一詞不復存在,表現自己成為一塊陌生的邊陲土地,而「他者」一詞卻不斷地建構復解構。說來奇怪,佛洛伊德原有的Unheimlich 的「外邦人」用詞,不再有人提起

 

Actually, a foreigner seldom arouses the terrifying anguish provoked by death, the female sex, or the “ baleful” unbridled drive. Are we nevertheless so sure that the “ political” feelings of zenophobia do not include often unconsciously, that agony of frightened joyfulness that has been called unheimlich, that in English is uncanny, and the Greeks quite simply call xenos, “ foreign”?

實際上,一位外邦人無論是死亡、異性、或「有邪念」的無法控制的欲求,所引起的痛苦,我們很少在意。可是,我們就如此確定,對於「外邦人恐懼症」所產生的政治感,並沒有潛在地包含佛洛伊德所謂的「無意識」,其實是歡樂受到驚嚇所產生的痛苦,英文所謂的「神秘」,希臘人簡單地稱之為zenos「外來」?

In the fascinated rejection that the foreigner arouses in us, there is a share of uncanny strangeness in the sense of the depersonalization that Freud discovered in it, and which takes up again our infantile desires and fears of the other—the other of death, the other of woman, the other of uncontrollable drive.

外邦人在我們內心所以起的迷人排斥中,分享著神秘的陌生感,或「除去個人化」,如佛洛伊德所發現的。它再一次引起我們對於「他者」嬰兒般的欲望跟恐懼,也就是死亡的他者、女性的他者、無法控制的欲求的他者。

 

 The foreigner is within us. And when we flee from or struggle against the foreigner, we are fighting our unconscious—that “ improper” facet of our impossible “ own and proper.” Delicately, analytically, Freud does not speak of foreigners: he teaches us how to detect foreignness in ourselves. That is perhaps the only way not to hound it outside of us. After Stoic cosmopolitanism, after religious universalist integration, Freud brings us the courage to call ourselves disintegrated in order not to integrate foreigners and even less so to hunt them down, but rather to welcome them to that uncanny strangeness, which is as much theirs as it is ours.

外邦人在我們內心。當我們逃離外邦人或跟他博鬥,我們是在跟我們的無意識戰鬥。無意識是我們難於捍衛的「生命本體」的外來體。佛洛伊德雖然分析,卻巧妙地避談外邦人。他只是教導我們如何去偵察我們內心的外來感。那可能是唯一的方法避免到外面去尋找。雖然禁欲學派教導普世氾用論,宗教也主張舉世皆準的原則,佛洛伊德卻帶給我們勇氣自承割裂,為了不要將外邦人驅除,更不用去捕捉他們。相反地,我們要歡迎那種神秘的陌生感,既屬於外邦人,亦屬於我們自己。

 

In fact, such a Freudian distraction or discretion concerning the “ problem of foreigners”—which appears only as an eclipse or, if one prefers, as a symptom, through the recall of the Geeks word zenoi—might be interpreted as an invitation ( a utopic or very modern one?) not to reify the foreigner, not to petrify him as such, or to petrify us as such. But to analyze it by analyzing us.

事實上,「外邦人的問題」,假如我們回想一下希臘文的用詞zenoi,聽起來像是月蝕或亦可以稱之為病癥。佛洛伊德這樣的分心或謹慎,可以被解釋是邀請我們到烏托邦或現代的理想社會,因此不要將外邦人具體化,不要將僵化他們,也不要僵化我們自已,而是要分析我們自己,來分析他們。

 

To discover our disturbing otherness, for that indeed is what busts in to confront that “ demon,” that threat, that apprehension generated by the projective apparition of the other at the heart of what we persist in maintaining as a proper, solid “ us..” By recognizing our uncanny strangeness we shall neither suffer from it nor enjoy it from the outside.

我們要找出令人困擾的他者,因為那確實就是就們必須與之相博鬥的「惡魔」,威脅、和憂慮。他者在我們持續維護當著堅固「本體自我」的城池,神出鬼沒,魅影幢幢。

 

By recognizing our uncanny strangeness we shall neither suffer from it nor enjoy it from the outside. The foreigner is within me, hence we are all foreigners. If I am a foreigner, there are no foreigners. Therefore Freud does not talk about them. The ethics of psychoanalysis implies a politics: it would involve a cosmopolitanism of a new sort that, cutting across governments, economies, and markets, might work for a mankind whose solidarity is founded on the consciousness of its unconscious — desiring, destructive , fearful, empty, impossible.

體認到我們神秘的陌生感,我們將不會從外面去感受痛苦或喜悅。外邦人在我們內心,因此我們都是外邦人。假如我自己就是外邦人,那麼外邦人就不復存在。因此佛洛伊德避談這個問題。精神分析學暗含政治學,牽涉到普世氾用論,跨越了政府、經濟、跟市場,可以應用到全人類,因為大家的意識都是建立在無意識之上:欲望、毀滅、恐懼、空虛、不可能。

 

Here we are far removed from a call to brotherhood, about which one has already ironically pointed out its debt to paternal and divine authority—“ In order to have brothers there must be a father,” as Louis-Fancois Veuillot did not fail to say when he sharply addressed humanists.

在此我們離愛兄弟如己的呼籲甚遠,因為我們已經反諷地指出,愛兄弟如已必須以肯定上帝的父權為前提。「先有父親,始有兄弟」如Louis-Francois Veuillot 侃侃而談人本主義時,所必然提出的。

  

On the basis of an erotic, death-bearing unconscious, the uncanny strangeness—a projection as well as a first working out of death drive—which adumbrates the work of the “ second” Freud, the one of Beyond the Pleasure Principle, sets the difference within us in its most bewildering shape and presents it as the ultimate condition of our being with others.

無意識兼具性慾及死亡衝動,神秘的陌生感是一種投射,也是死亡衝動的最初建構,佛洛伊德以此為基礎,描繪出他的第二部著作「超越快樂原則」,區分我們內心的這個差異,以最令人困惑的方式,呈現它當著我們跟別人相處的最後狀況。

 

P191

Strangers To Ourselves by Julia Kristiva

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

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