Orpheus Complex

Unpleasant Matter不愉快的物質

Continuing our study of unpleasant matter, we will now attempt to characterize, from the point of view of the material imagination, a work of literature that contains great psychological truths.

繼續我們對不愉快物資的研究,我們現在將從物質想像的觀點,表現一個具有心理真相的文學作品的特色。

In Nausea, Jean-Paul Sartre presents a character, Roquentin, who exemplifies with unusual clarity a certain psychological type. This character serves to distinguish between a psychological originality profoundly rooted in the unconscious and the contrived originality found in woks of secondary novelists.

在「嘔吐」的小說中,沙特呈現一個人物羅圭亭,非常清楚地作為某個心理類型的典範。這個人物充當區別一個深深根源於無意識的心理的真知灼見,以及在二流小說家的作品中常發現靈巧噱頭。

One discovers, if one reads enough, that novelists imbue their heroes with numerous contradictions, in the belief that they will appear “ life-like” by means of gratuitous inconsistencies. But contradictions do not necessarily produce ambivalence. A contradiction not rooted in ambivalence remains a mere psychological incident.

假如我們時常閱讀,我們就會發現到,小說家替他們的角色沾染無數的矛盾,相信在境遇偶然的不一致中,他們更酷似真實人生。但是矛盾未必產生猶豫不決。矛盾而未根源於猶豫不定,始終僅是心理的偶發事件。

Sartre, on the other hand, develops his psychological novel by following the opposite course, proceeding from ambivalence to contradiction. He presents a character who, in the realm of the material imagination, cannot attain “ solidity,” and consequently can never maintain a firm position in life.

在另一方面,沙特以追蹤相反的途徑,發展他的心理小說,從猶豫不定進展到矛盾。他呈現他的人物,在物質想像的領域,無法得到「完整性」,結果永遠無法維持一個牢固的人生立場。

Roquentin is sick even in the realm of material images, that is to say even in his attempt to establish a viable relationship with the substance of things. He attributes contradictory qualities to the essence of things because he himself is divided by ambivalence as he approaches them.

羅圭亭即使在物質影像的領域中都是病態的。換句話說,即使在他企圖跟物質建立可來往的關係。當他接近物質的本質時,他給這他們賦予矛盾的特質,因為他自己就受到猶豫不決所分裂。

We can see this ambivalence play out precisely in Roquentin’s imagery of the consistency of objects. In a single paragraph, Sartre shows the hero of Nausea in the process of gathering  “chestnuts,” : old rags,” and, later, “ heavy and sumptuous papers, probably soiled by excrement.

我們能夠看出,這個猶豫不決在羅圭亭的物體一貫的意象中,如何準確地運作。有一段中,沙特描寫到「嘔吐」的主角在收集「栗子」「破爛」,以及後來「笨重大量的紙板」的過程,可能是受到糞便所污染。

Yet Roquentin recoils from contact with a pebble on the beach—a pebble washed clean by the sea! The conventional responses of attraction and disgust are here reversed. This material inversion excites irregular, and as a consequence passionate, concern. Unpleasant material suffices to make an unhappy man conscious of his unhappiness.

可是羅圭亭在海灘遇到海浪沖刷得乾淨的石礫,卻畏縮不前!迷人與厭惡的傳統反應在此被顛倒過來。物質的倒轉引起不正常,結果是激情的關心。不愉快的物質足夠使一個不快樂的人意識到自己的不快樂。

P85

Earth and Reveries of Will by Gaston Bachelard

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

  

Orpheus Complex 奧費斯情結

We believe, however, that if human life is indeed placed in the framework of these natural rhythms, what we are determining is happiness, not thought. The mind needs a much closer pattern of reference points.

可是我們相信,假如人類生活確實要置身於這些自然韻律的架構中,我們決定要的是快樂,而不是思想。心靈需要更緊密的相關連的模式。

If intellectual life is to become the dominant form of life, physically speaking, with thought time prevailing over lived time, then we must devote all our efforts to the quest for an active repose that finds no satisfaction in what is freely bestowed the hour and the season.

假如智性人生要成為佔支配性的人生,具體地說,就是思想時間勝過於生活的時間,那麼我們必需要全力以赴追求積極的安詳,也就是無法僅僅在年歲季節循環所自然賜予的幸福中得到滿足。

It would seem that for Pinheiro dos Santos this active, vibrant repose corresponds to the lyric state. The Brazilian philosopher has a close knowledge of modern French literature, in particular of Valery and Caudel, whom he greatly admires. He submits to each in turn, to the power of the rhetoric of Claudel’s writing, and then to the subtle ambiguities of Paul Valery’s thought.

對於Pinheiro dos Santos而言, 這個積極共鳴的安詳似乎是跟抒情的狀態對應。這位巴西的哲學家對於現代法國文學耳熟能詳,特別是他所頗為心儀的梵樂希及柯帖耳。他時而傾心於柯帖耳的華美文藻時而陶醉於保羅、梵樂希思想的的細膩微妙。

In Valery, he appreciates most of all the supreme art of the poet as, skillfully, he disturbs our calm and calms our disturbance, and moves from our heart to our mind, only to return at once from mind to heart.

梵樂希作為詩人所展現的崇高藝術之所以讓人心儀不已,在於他不僅騷亂我們的安詳,而且又能使我們的騷亂復歸於安詳。他牽引我們的情懷於理性,馬上又牽引我們的理性,復歸於情櫰。

Yet Pinheiro dos Santos does not rest content with this rather coldly intellectual interpretation of the lyric life. He prefers that lyricism should continue to be regarded as a purely physical charm, a myth that lulls us to sleep, a complex binding us to our past, to our youth and its impetuosity.

可是對於這種以冷靜知性詮釋抒情人生的方式Pinheiro dos Santos 並不滿足。他寧可要抒情的人生繼續被認為是一種純粹肉身的魅力,一種引誘我們入眠的神話,一種使我們跟往事、跟青春、及其戀執密切結合的情結。

Indeed, he suggests a lyric myth for Rhythmanalysis which could well be called the Orpheus complex.

的確,他替韻律分析提出一個抒情神話,可名之為「奧費斯情結」。

This complex would correspond to our first and fundamental need to give pleasure and to offer solace; it would be revealed in the caresses of tender sympathy, and characterized by the attitude in which our being gains pleasure through the giving of pleasure, by the attitude of making some kind of offering.

這個情結將會對應於我們最初、最根本的人性需求:要給於快樂、給於安慰。

在溫柔同情的撫慰中所顯示的特有態度是:存在以給予快樂而得到快樂,奉獻本身就是快樂。

The Orpheus complex would be the exact antithesis of the Oedipus complex. Poetic interpretations of this Orpheus complex may be seen in Rilke’s orphic lyricism, as a lyricism which egotistically lives out an indeterminate love of others.

奧費斯情結恰好與伊底帕斯情結相反。在里爾克的奧費斯抒情詩中,我們可看到這種奧費斯情結的詩意詮釋:抒情詩雖然以自我出發,卻能愛戀他人而不一定求回報。

How very sweet it is to love anyone or anything indiscriminately. How delightful ever to live at the moment in love, ever amidst love’s first rapturous declaration!

愛戀一個人或物卻不一定求回報,那是多麼甜美!生活在愛的瞬間,在愛的初次狂喜告白,那是何等的令人欣悅!

This, then, is the basis of a theory of formal pleasure which is the very opposite of the theory of that material pleasure, immediate and objective, which in the Oedipus complex binds the unfortunate child to the face that he first sees above his cradle.

這就是正式歡樂的理論基礎,跟物資歡樂的理論剛好相反。後者立即而實際,表現在伊底帕斯情結上,就是嬰兒愛戀在搖籃裡初次看到的臉孔,而產生亂倫的悲劇。

Gaston Bachelard, Subversive Humanist

Translated by Springhero雄伯

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